iEnvironmental Engineering Researchj
Vol.40 (2003)


Advanced municipal wastewater treatment by a novel membrane bioreactor: simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a single reaction chamber
Takanori ITONAGA*, Manabu SASAKAWA**, Katsuki KIMURA* , Yoshimasa WATANABE*
*:Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Graduate School, Hokkaido University, Japan
[Takanori ITONAGA] itonaga@eng.hokudai.ac.jp
[Yoshimasa WATANABE] yoshiw@eng.hokudai.ac.jp
In this study, a novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) in which nitrification and denitrification simultaneously proceed in a single reaction chamber is proposed for advanced municipal wastewater treatment. Anoxic/aerobic conditions are separately created in the proposed MBR by inserting baffles inside of the membrane chamber and consequently simultaneous nitrification/denitrification can be carried out. The technology established in this study can easily be applied to almost all of existing MBRs. Pilot-scale experiment to examine performance of the proposed MBR was carried out at an existing municipal wastewater treatment plant. In this paper, experimental results obtained in the pilot study are shown. Inserting baffles inside the membrane chamber actually increased removal of nitrogen by 30%. Coagulation and sedimentation were carried out in the pilot study for pre-treatment of the MBR. Removal efficiency in terms of total organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen determined for whole treatment system (i.e., coagulation/sedimentation/the proposed MBR) was attained to 91.5%, 97.2%, and 66.2%, respectively. Increase in transmembrane pressure difference was minimal in the pilot operation. It was demonstrated that high quality effluent and mitigation of membrane fouling could simultaneously be achieved by the proposed MBR.

Reduction Mechanism of the Excess Sludge via Ultrasonic Wave Process for Sewage Treatment PlantD
Yukio MITEKURA*C**, Yasunori KOSAKI**, Tomoaki OKUDA***, Satoko KAI****, Shinsuke KASAHARA**, Munetaka ISHIKAWA**
*General Affairs Division, Agricultural, Forestry & Fisheries Dept. Hyogo Gov.
**Dep. of Civil Engineering and Urban Design, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology
***Mastushita Environmental Air Conditioning Eng. Co. Ltd.
****COS Co. Ltd.
In this work, reduction mechanism of ultrasonicated excess activated sludge from sedimentation tank of wastewater treatment plant was experimentally investigated and studied by the simulation analysis. A part of the return sludge was sent to the ultrasonic reactor and the solubilized sludge was biodegraded in the aeration tank. The maximal excess sludge reduction ratio achieved was about 80% or more on these experiments. Consequently, compared with the kinetics modeling and simulations, the following results were obtained. 1) Reduction of the excess activated sludge via ultrasonication was regarded that these were affected by sludge flocs minimization in size of 50 to 37m less. 2) It was considered that the relational factors of these reductions of the excess activated sludge were concerning by conversion ratio of bacterial cell to substrate, gross yield coefficient, autolysins and growth speed of bacteria. 3) And these were acceded by reaction formula via Monod expression. 4) Parameters of ultrasonically treated sludge were obtained as k=0.03 1/day, Ks=250mg/?-SS, a1=1.8kg-SS/kg-TOC, a2=0.4 kg-SS/kg-SS, a3=0.6 kg-SS/kg-SS, b=0.02 1/day. 5) Reduction process of the excess activated sludge via ultrasonication was able to be represented by the kinetics model including interval of time.

Evaluation of the usability of excess sludge treated hydrothermal reaction as carbon sources for enhanced biological phosphate removal
FUJITA Masafumi*, KIM Kyoungrean**, DAIMON Hiroyuki**, and FUJIE Koichi**
*:Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Yamanashi, JAPAN
**:Department of Ecological Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, JAPAN
[FUJITA Masafumi] mfujita@yamanashi.ac.jp
Excess sludge treated by hydrothermal reaction was investigated to evaluate the usability of carbon sources for enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR). Experiments were conducted with batch reactor apparatus under various temperature and pressure conditions. The excess sludge was obtained from a local fishery factory. Under the tested conditions, solubilization ratio of treated excess sludge showed around 0.7, except the results of the temperature condition of 400oC. Though attained BOD5 values of treated excess sludge were higher than that of raw excess sludge, they were not much different. However, the results of oxygen utilization rate attained from respirometric method were much different depending on reaction conditions. From these results, readily biodegradable substrate was detected at the reaction conditions of 300oC and 9MPa. Then it increased with increasing reaction temperature. At the reaction conditions of 400oC and 30MPa, the readily biodegradable substrate content in T-CODCr reached at 0.66. Besides, acetic acid and propionic acid that phosphate-accumulating organisms use as carbon sources were detected. Excess sludge treated by hydrothermal reaction can be useable as carbon sources for EBPR.


Characterization of municipal wastewater organic components for activated sludge process modeling
ITOKAWA Hiroki*, HASHIMOTO Toshikazu*, MURAKAMI Takao*
*:Research and Technology Development Division, Japan Sewage Works Agency
[ITOKAWA Hiroki] itokawah@jswa.go.jp
Activated Sludge Model (ASM) published by IWA requires influent organic matter being characterized into specific components such as greadily biodegradable (SS)h, ginert soluble (SI)h, gslowly biodegradable (XS)h, gheterotrophic organisms (XH)h and ginert particulate (XI), which are not used in practical wastewater treatment plant design and operation in Japan. In this study, the influent of 16 municipal wastewater treatment plants was characterized by measuring oxygen uptake rate (OUR) of the mixture of the influent and activated sludge collected from each plant. The influent SS, XS, and XH components ranged 0-43, 63-444, and 11-41 mgCOD/L, respectively, showing significant fluctuation among the plants, especially for SS and XS. On the other hand, the influent characteristics in one plant showed relatively small change during 8 months measurement. SS showed a good correlation with influent VFA, suggesting that SS could be estimated by VFA measurement. It was also shown that filtrate by 0.10 _m membrane filter could contain significant amount of gslowly biodegradableh component. OUR measurement for a short period (ghourh order) can lead underestimation of XS when dealing with the influent containing a large amount of particle matter (like raw wastewater). XS estimation from ultimate BOD determination might be an alternative in practical application of ASM.

Isolation of the Denitrifying Phosphate-Accumulating Organisms Using Alternating Anaerobic-Anoxic Screening Method
HAMADA Koji*, KUBA Takahiro**, KANAYAMA Takuhiro*, KUSUDA Tetsuya**
* Dept. of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, KYUSHU UNIVERSITY
** Dept. of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, KYUSHU UNIVERSITY
[HAMADA Koji] hamada@civil.kyushu-u.ac.jp
[KUSUDA Tetsuya] kusuda@civil.kyushu-u.ac.jp
A brandnew screening equipment was proposed to isolate the denitrifying phosphate-accumulating organisms. A screening work was carried out under the alternating anaerobic-anoxic condition. At only anaerobic phase, acetate was used as a sole organic matter. At the anoxic phase, nitrate as a final electron accepter and no organic matters were added. Since the inside of equipment was washed with distilled water at the shifting phase from each condition to the other condition, acetate and nitrate did not exist simultaneously during the work. As a result of these works using activated sludge in a municipal waste water treatment plant, three kinds of pure cultures of Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila closely related species, Pseudomonas fulva closely related species and Acinetobacter johnsonii closely related species were obtained. All of isolated bacteria were able to accumulate polyphosphate and PHB, and had the phosphate removal activity under unique conditions such as alternating anaerobic-anoxic conditions. By microscopy with a staining method it is reasonable to suppose qualitatively that these bacteria are responsible for enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

Evaluation of in-situ activity of ammonia-oxidizing population in biofilm by quantification of amoA
Mamoru OSHIKI*, Nobuo ARAKI*, Takashi YAMAGUCHI**, Shinichi YAMAZAKI***,Hideki HARADA****
* :Department of Civil Engineering, Nagaoka National College of Technology,JAPAN
**:Department of Civil Engineering, Kure National College of Technology,JAPAN
***:Department of Civil Engineering, Kouchi National College of Technology,JAPAN
****:Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology,JAPAN
[Nobuo Araki] araki@nagaoka-ct.ac.jp
The relationship between ammonia-oxidizing activities and amoA mRNA (encoding ammonia monooxigenase) levels was investigated by batch experiments with nitrifying biofilms taken from a lab-scale bioreactor. RT-PCR technology was applied to determine copy numbers of amoA mRNA in total RNA extracted from the sludge sample. Ammonia oxidation rates and transcription levels of amoA mRNA were monitored throughout the experiment that ammonia was fed as the concentration rose abruptly up to 20 or 100 mg-N/L whenever ammonia consumed completely.@A large ammonia turnover rate occurred immediately after every ammonia shock load, although the amoA mRNA level was still low. The turnover rate gradually reduced with decreasing ammonia concentration, while the amoA mRNA level increased until several hours after every ammonia shock load. The tendency of the amoA mRNA transcription changed a decrease as ammonia concentration dropped as low as Km value of Nitrosomonas. The induction of amoA mRNA was detected under the presence of low ammonia less than 5 mg-N/L. However the amoA mRNA level was not correlated with the ammonia turnover rate in the range from 5 to 100 mg-N/L. It was indicated that the amoA mRNA level in the nitrifying sludge was not directly connected to the in-situ activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

Diversity of Ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria Based on 16S rDNA Sequence Analysis
Tomonori KINDAICHI, Tsukasa ITO, Satoshi OKABE, Yoshimasa WATANABE
Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate school of Engineering, Hokkaido University.
We investigated the phylogenetic diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in different environments based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis with the specific primer set. The sequence analysis revealed that the Nitrosomonas oligotropha-like AOB were the dominant in low-ammonium environments such as river and drinking water treatment systems. In contrast, the Nitrosomonas europaea-like AOB were the dominant in high-ammonium environments in which the concentration of ammonium is more than 1000 mg-N/L. In medium-ammonium environments, the coexistence of the distinct AOB related to the Nitrosomonas europaea-, Nitrosomonas oligotropha-, and Nitrosospira sp.-like clusters were found, indicating a high phylogenetic diversity. These observations support the hypothesis that Nitrosomonas europaea is r-strategist, whereas Nitrosospira sp. is K-strategist, indicating that Nitrosomonas europaea can outcompete the Nitrosospira sp. at high ammonium concentration. These results provide insight into the type of AOB responsible for nitrification in different engineered systems, which should help direct future studies aimed at characterizing relevant AOB growth.

Formation Characteristics of Bromate Ion during Ozonation and itfs Removal in Sewage Treatment
Hyo-sang KIM*, Harumi YAMADA*, Hiroshi TSUNO*
Department of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School, Kyoto University
Hyo-sang KIM ; hskim89@water.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp
Bromate ion, an anion with carcinogenic properties, may be formed when bromide-containing water is ozonated during treatment. Investigation showed that bromide and bromate level in sewage effluents were in a range of 44?447g/L and 1.2?15g/L, respectively. In this study it is showed that bromate ion is a principal disinfection by-product during ozonation in sewage effluents. Formation amount of the bromate ion is affected by coexistence matters like nitrite ion and organic groups, which have high absorbance at 254nm. To control the formation of bromate ion, it is good to apply ozone at consumption amount in the range of 1.0?2.0mgO3/mgC. Bromate ion in sewage was reduced to bromide in biological filtration for denitrification after nitrate was denitrified.

Basic Study on Crystallization Process for High Concentration of Phosphorus
Toshihiro KOJIMA*, Katsumi MORIYAMA**, Kenichi KOGA***
*:Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, JAPAN
**:Faculty of Engineering, Kyusyu Kyoritu University, JAPAN
***:Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, JAPAN
[Toshihiro KOJIMA] to-kojma@mmc.co.jp
Important factors for the crystallization of calcium phosphate are pH value and ratio of PO4-P and Ca2+concentrations. Precipitation of calcium phosphate in the crystallizatoin process reduces efficiency because the precipitate, which should be removed in settlement process, has no contribution to the crystallization. In order to get high removal efficiency in the crystallization, it is necessary to minimize the calcium phosphate precipitation. From this point of view, the optimum conditions for pH value and ratio of PO4-P and Ca2+concentrations are examined in this study. Supersaturation conditions referring the crystallization and the precipitation are found from the experimental results. Promising approach for minimizing the precipitation is to control supersaturation by diluting PO4-P and Ca2+ concentrations with the effluent.

Relationship between Water Qualities and Ecological Indices of Benthos Distribution in Rivers
AYUKAWA Kazufumi*, SAKAMOTO Yasushi**, NISHIDA Kei**, HAYAKAWA Takayuki***, ATSUTA Yoichi***
*:Chuoh consultants Co.,ltd JAPAN
**:Interdisciplinary Graduate school and Medicine Engineering of Yamanashi,JAPAN
***:Civil and Environmental Engineering of Yamanashi Graduate School, JAPAN
[AYUKAWA Kazufumi] Kazuayu@nifty.com
In the river engineering field, it has been more important to evaluate a river environment from the ecological viewpoint, recently. This research examined what kind of water quality influences the benthic community, and that the traditional ecological-indices can be adapted to the assessment of the present river environment. In this research, the benthic community data of National Censuses on River Environments was used. The results showed that the difference in the Biotic Index of the usual Beck-Tsuda method could not be observed among the examined points in clean rivers because of its excessive sensitivity to a number of species, and that the index did not correspond to the water quality situation. However, the pollution-non-tolerant species of the Beck-Tsuda method were influenced by the water quality situation of NO3- and DOC in the present clean rivers. To examine that how fluctuation of the water quality influences the biodiversity of benthic community, the relationship between the Pielou index and the coefficient of variation of water quality was examined. The result showed that the fluctuation of the water quality reduced the biodiversity.

Jiro AIZAWA, Ayumi ITO, Koji ISHIGE, Shinsuke ARAKAWA and Teruyuki UMITA
*Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Iwate University
**CTI Engineering Co., Ltd.
The effect of riparian forest on water environment was studied in the River Miyamori, Iwate prefecture, based on the data on water quality, aquatic insect communities, flowing organic matter, sediment particle distribution and chlorophyll-a on the artificial substrate. The riparian forest located in the upper and middle water regions increased the flux of flowing organic matter and the amount of organic matter in the riverbed, resulting in an increase in the number of individuals and taxa of aquatic insect. It was found that the individual number of shredder and the flux of flowing organic matter with a size of more than 3.35 mm had a good correlation and the value of Shannon Diversity Index of aquatic insect was increased.

Characteristics and colonizing processes of periphytic diatom communities downstream of dam sites along the Katsuuta River, Tokushima Prefecture
*: Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokushima
**: Research Center for Coastal Lagoon Environments, Shimane University
***: Yonden Consultant Company, Incorporated, Tokushima
[Minoru SHIRATORI] minoru@eco.tokushima-u.ac.jp
[Yasunori KOZUKI] kozuki@eco.tokushima-u.ac.jp
Effects of dams on periphytic diatom communities along the Katsuura River were investigated to understand the relationship between the environmental factors and the characteristics of diatom communities. The prostrate type diatoms were found to dominate upstream of the upper Masaki dam site, while downstream of the dam sites, the filamentous and motile types appeared with lesser number of prostrate types. The component ratios of these life forms measured at a total number of eight locations were classified according to the distances from the dam sites. The differences in each location appear to be correlated with the grain size distribution in the river bed rather than fluctuations in river discharge. The study revealed that the river bed in the locations nearby the dam sites which is devoid of much sand seems to favor colonization of the vertical type of diatoms.

Influence of water quality and sediment on the growth of attached algae in the river Akagawa receiving effluent from an acid mine drainage treatment plant
Atsushi SASAKI*, Hiroaki KARIYA**, Ayumi ITO*, Hiroshi KAWAGUCHI*, Jiro AIZAWA and Teruyuki UMITA
*Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Iwate University
**The Tohoku Regional Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport
Influence of water quality and sediment on the growth of attached algae was investigated using artificial substrates at nine stations in the whole area of the river Akagawa which receives the effluent from a mine drainage treatment plant. In the upper reaches, the pH value was about 3.5 and the concentrations of metals were comparatively high. The deposition of Fe, As and Pb was significant at the station receiving the effluent. In the middle reaches, the pH value ranged between 4.6 and 6.8 and the amount of Al precipitated on the riverbed was high compared with those in the upper and lower reaches. Although the value of pH was increased and the concentration of metals was decreased in the middle reaches, the chlorophyll a content of the sediment was low compared with that in the upper reaches. This would be due to the inhibition of the growth of attached algae by the remarked precipitation of Al with an increase in pH.
Furthermore, the batch culture was carried out using water sample taken in the upper reaches to investigate the effect of the water quality on the growth of attached algae. It was confirmed that the amount of chlorophyll a finally became abundant even in low pH and high concentrations of metals. However, the algae assemblage was almost dominated by the acid tolerant algae.
From these results, it is concluded that the continuous precipitation of metals contained in the effluent would have an adverse influence on the growth of attached algae in the whole area of the river Akagawa.

Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) Formation from Particulate Organic Matter (POM) in Upstreams
FUJII Manabu*, YOSHIMURA Chihiro**, TOCKNER Klement***, OMURA Tatsuo*
*:Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, JAPAN
**:Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, JAPAN
***:Department of Limnology, Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG), Switzerland
[FUJII Manabu] manabu@water.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
Experiments on the leaching of DOM from riverine POM fractions were conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative formation of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Amphipods (Gammarus sp.) were fed in the laboratory with preconditioned leaves of Fraxinus excelsior, Alnus incana, and Quercus robur, twigs of Populus nigra, and epilithic algae (periphyton). Amphipods produced two FPOM fractions (L-FPOM: 250-500mm; M-FPOM: 100-250mm). L-FPOM consisted primarily of fecal pellets while M-FPOM was mainly composed of CPOM fragments created by the feeding activity. FPOM fractions and CPOM were exposed in 100ml Erlenmeyer bottles and stirred at 100rpm at 12oC under dark conditions. DOC release rate, UV absorption (E285) and microbial respiration (Biological Oxygen Demand in 3 days) were repeatedly measured over a 14-day period.
FPOM exhibited significantly lower DOC release rate than CPOM in first 24 hours of the experiment while it was slightly higher than CPOM in the second week. DOM release rate from air-dried leaves (CPOM) was significantly correlated with chlorophyll a content. Microbial respiration suggested that POM was converted by bacterial community into more refractory compound while releasing relatively labile DOM. In addition, POM derived from epilithic algae showed distinct leaching mechanism from allochthonous POM.

Water Quality Studies of Rivers with Enlarging Sewered Area@Using Principal Component Analysis
HIRAYAMA Kimiaki*, FUJIMURA Masaki**, IMAOKA Masaharu***,
* Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi
*** Professor Emeritus, University of Yamanashi
[HIRAYAMA Kimiaki] khyama@yamanashi.ac.jp
Water quality data at several sampling stations in Kofu for 30 years was analyzed and effects of enlarging sewered area on river water qualities were studied. Correlation between water quality variables was presented. As an attempt to show an overall trend in water quality variation principal component analysis was carried out. Three principal components were obtained. They may represent (a) overall intensity of water pollution, (b) balance between dissolved and suspended matter, and (c) temperature related index. The component representing overall intensity of water pollution has a close correlation with the enlargement of sewered area. The effectiveness of measuring more than one water quality variable in assessing water quality trend was pointed out. It was suggested that improvement in river water qualities with the enlargement of sewered area does not proceed to cleanness of upper streams.

The river water quality and estimation of pollutant loads in the Kinokawa catchments
Masanobu TANIGUCHI *, Hiroyuki. II **, Nobuyuki. EGUSA **, Tatemasa HIRATA **, Naoya ARAKI ***
* Graduate School of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University ,Japan
**Department of Systems Engineering , Wakayama University,Japan
*** Town government of Iwade,Japan
[Hiroyuki II] hiro@sys.wakayama-u.ac.jp
[Masanobu TANIGUCHI] s020068@sys.wakayama-u.ac.jp
Water quality of the Kinokawa River has not been satisfied with the Japanese environmental quality standard. Then, origins of pollution of Kinokwa River were analyzed by L-Q equation and pollutant load per unit production using a field survey result and previous data. As a result, BOD and T-N values calculated from L-Q method were in good agreement with those calculated from pollutant load unit production method. The difference of T-P values between two methods was twice. Pollutant load source was estimated by pollutant load per unit production method. Main sources of BOD, T-N, and T-P in Kinokawa catchments were estimated to be domestic sewage, orchard, and industrial wastewater respectively. Comparing lower and upper stream of Kinokawa catchments, main sources of BOD and T-P in the upper stream were forest. Main sources of BOD and T-P in the lower stream were domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. Main sources of T-N in both streams were orchards. Therefore, each main source was various and comprehensive plan is necessary for controlling river water quality.

Research on Water Utilization and Pollutant Load Fluxes in Xi'an City
Osamu Higashi*, Tetsuya Kusuda**, Xiaochang C Wang***, Kazuhisa Inoue****, Shinpei Ozaki****, Keisuke Baba****
*:Japan Science and Technology Corporation
**:Department of Urban Environmental Engineering, Kyushu University,
***:School of Environmental & Municipal Engineering Xi'an University of Architecture & Technology
****:Department of Urban Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Graduate School, Kyushu University
[Osamu Higashi] crest@civil.kyushu-u.ac.jp
[Tetsuya Kusuda] kusuda@civil.kyushu-u.ac.jp
Xi'an, one of the biggest cities in the middle part of china, is along the Weihe River which is a branch of the Yellow River. In resent years, its water demand has been increasing drastically due to rapid industrial development and population growth. Infrastructure, such as water supply and wastewater treatment plants, however has not established enough yet, so serious water problems in quality and quantity have appeared. For example, ground subsidence has occurred by too much ground water abstraction, and water pollution has been more seriously by increasing domestic, industrial and agricultural wastewater disposal. So constructing an efficient water utilization system is an urgent need in this region. In this study, the authors investigate water balance and pollutant load fluxes in Xi'an City based on field surveys, and by analyzing GIS data and using SD. In conclusion, in Xi'an City, ground water accounts for 70% of the total water use and its amount decreased 0.9 billion tons from 1993 to 2001. The total BOD amount into the rivers is about 0.2 million tons in 2001 and its 90% is from domestic and industrial waste waters.

Study on Water Quality Distribution in Lake Biwa in Consideration of Runoff Pollutant Loads into the Lake
ICHIKI Atsushi*, SASAKI Akito**, SAKATA Norihisa***, NAKAKURA Kanako*** and YAMATE Hiroyuki***
*: Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering, Ritsumeikan Univ., Japan
**: Takatsuki City Office, Japan
***: Graduate School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ritsumeikan Univ., Japan
[ICHIKI Atsushi] a-ichiki@se.ritsumei.ac.jp
Many strategies for water quality conservation in Lake Biwa are being carried out mainly by reducing runoff pollutant loads into the lake. But influence of the runoff load reduction on the water quality in Lake Biwa has not been clarified enough so far. This study is aimed at discussing methodology to estimate water quality distribution in Lake Biwa using runoff pollutant loads from its basin. The runoff loads from the basin are calculated by Macro Model with GIS database of the Lake Biwa basin, and the water quality distribution in the lake is estimated by spline technique with the calculated runoff loads. As a result, it has been proved that the methodology has enough reproducibility to estimate the water quality distribution in Lake Biwa and is also available to examine the water quality in the lake.

Study of a macroscopic calculation method for estimating outflow pollution loads from rain events
*Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University
This paper proposes a statistical method of calculating the effect of rainfall on outflow pollution, including effects on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen and phosphorus values from nonpoint sources (NPS) measured on a monthly and yearly basis. First, we describe a method of calculating the effect of rainfall on Tama Riverfs outflow pollution load. Second, we examine the influence of rainfall on Tama River Valley by analyzing rainfall and river data. Third, by using the calculation method proposed in this paper, we re-calculated Tama Riverfs outflow pollution load from rainfall for the past ten years. Finally, we compare and evaluate results from previous calculations of Tama Riverfs pollution load from rainfall to the calculation method proposed in this paper and demonstrate the validity of this statistical method.

Formation and Decrease of Activity Inducing Chromosomal Aberrations of Waters Treated with Chlorine and Chlorine Dioxide
Sadahiko ITOH*, Hitoshi MURAKAMI**, Masaru FUKUHARA***, Atsushi NAKANO****
*:Dept. of Urban Management, Kyoto Univ.
**:Dept. of Ecosystem Eng., The Univ. of Tokushima
***:Nihon Suido Consultants Co., Ltd.
****:TOHO GAS Co., Ltd.
mSadahiko ITOHnitoh@urban.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp
Chages of the mutagenic activity of waters treated with chlorine and chlorine dioxide were examined to estimate the mutagenic activity of drinking of water in distribution systems. Chromosomal aberration test using Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cell was carried out to evaluate mutagenic activity. There were differences in forming and decreasing rete of activity inducing aberrations between treated waters. The observed decreasing rate constant of the activity inducing aberrations of chlorinated water was 1.4 to 1.9 times as large as that of water treated with chlorine dioxide. The mutagenic activity of drinking water treated with chlorine dioxide was estimated to be 70-80% of that of chlorinated drinking water. However, the difference in mutagenic activity would be small when drinking water remains long in distribution systems. There were no disinfection by-products with the same variation tendency of activity inducing aberrations after the disinfection.

Role of Nutrients in Producing the Growth Inhibitory Effect on Bacteria in UV-irradiated Water
SAKAI Hiroshi*, KATAYAMA Hiroyuki**, OHGAKI Shinichiro*
*: Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo **: Institute of Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo
[SAKAI Hiroshi] h_sakai@env.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp
[KATAYAMA Hiroyuki] katayama@env.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp
[OHGAKI Shinichiro] ohgaki@env.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp
UV disinfection is considered as a useful disinfection process. In application to water treatment, residuality of its germicidal effect needs to be evaluated. In this study, two groups of water samples were prepared with different compositions of nutrients and three levels of concentrations of nutrients. All samples contain both photosensitizing organic matter and ferric ion. These water samples were tested to produce growth inhibitory effect after UV irradiation and its effect was evaluated by reduction of E.coli. Water samples were irradiated by medium-pressure UV lamp to produce 1600mWs/cm2 just before inoculating exponentially growing E.coli, whose survival was determined for 48 hours by colony forming assay. Up to 2.0 log reduction of E.coli was observed in the UV irradiated water containing no nutrients, and the reduction was enhanced up to 3.3 log by addition of nutrients. Among the added nutrients, nitrate ion and sodium glycerophosphate enhanced the reduction of E.coli. In the three levels of nutrients concentrations tested, maximum reduction of E.coli was observed at the following concentrations: 0.05g/l of Sodium Glycerophosphate, 0.1g/l of KNO3, 0.15g/l of Ca(NO3)2, 0.04g/l of MgSO4. The UV energy absorbed in the water was not related well to the reduction of E.coli.

Repressive effects of yeast extract on photoreactivation of Escherichia coli
Kumiko OGUMA*, Hiroyuki KATAYAMA**, Hiroshi MITANI** and Shinichiro OHGAKI*
*Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo
**Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo
OGUMA, Kumiko : oguma@env.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp
Photoreactivation of Escherichia coli after a low-pressure ultraviolet (UV) lamp inactivation was investigated in the presence or absence of yeast extract (YE). The YE solution was dialyzed to specify the fraction affecting photoreactivation. A conventional colony forming test was used to examine the survival of E. coli, while an endonuclease sensitive site (ESS) assay was also performed to determine the number of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in the genome DNA of E. coli. In photoreactivation of E. coli, survival recovery was significantly reduced in the presence of YE. Further investigations with YE dialysates indicated that the YE components with nominal molecular weights between 1000 and 3500 were mostly responsible for repressing the survival recovery. Interestingly, ESS repair was observed even with the YE dialysate, suggesting that E. coli could not recover the survival even after the repair of ESS in the presence of YE. The results of this study indicated that the YE components were effective to repress the survival recovery of E. coli without directly affecting ESS repair during photoreactivation.

Isolation of alminium-complexing organic matters originated from algae
Tomoko TAKAARA*CAkiko MARUYAMA**, Daisuke SANO*, Hiroshi KONNO***and Tatsuo OMURA*
*Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University
**Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Tohoku University
***Department of Civil Engineering, Tohoku Institute of Technology
Mass propagation of algae in raw water has been known related to disturbing the flocculation in drinking water treatment systems. Many researchers proposed that algal organic matters (AOMs) can interact with flocculants by coordinate bonds, and bring about several disorders due to increases in flocculant demand and in the residual flocculant in treated water. However, the inhibitory mechanism by AOMs have not been elucidated. In this study, alminium-complexing substances in AOMs were successfully isolated with affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that these substances include proteins which have molecular weight between 40 and 70kDa. However, the results of the gel chromatography show that the amount of these proteins in AOMs were estimated to be very low compared to organic matters with high molecular weights around 2000kDa. These results imply that not only proteins but also other organic matters such as polysaccharides contribute to the inhibition of flocculation.

Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) based on the adsorption principals onto coagulated floc
Kazuhiro KOMATSU, Fumiyuki NAKAJIMA, Hiroaki FURUMAI
Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineeering, The University of Tokyo
Adsorption experiments using three types of model flocs and various DOM were conducted for the purpose of characterization of DOM based on the adsorption principals. The model flocs were (1) ferric oxide under pH=9.5 (Fe9.5) acting as the absorbent by ligand exchange, (2) ferric oxide under pH=6.5 (Fe6.5) as the absorbent both by ligand exchange and by charge neutralization, and (3) silica with cationic polyacrylamide (Si+C) as the absorbent by cation bridging. The DOM samples included lake water as well as amino acids, sugars, organic acids, protein, polysaccharide, humic acid, and lignin. The comparison of the DOM concentrations before and after the adsorption experiment indicated that DOM with low molecular weight was not adsorbed by all the model flocs. The adsorption potential of DOM was evaluated as the residual ratio of DOM after adsorption experiment in the case of 3.6g/L floc concentration. The potential varied among the DOM as lake water<lignin<albuminstarchhumic acid at the conditions of Fe9.5 and Fe6.5. Under the condition of Si+C, the potential was lower compared with Fe9.5 and Fe6.5 except for albumin. The selective adsorption of DOM with E260 was observed, and the selectivity was highest under the Si+C condition.

Removal characteristics of trace chemicals by nanofiltration membranes
Takuya SUZUKI*, Ken-ichi FUKUSHI*
Graduate school of Engineering, Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Japan
[Takuya SUZUKI] d01301@hi-tech.ac.jp
[Ken-ichi FUKUSHI] fukushi@hi-tech.ac.jp
Nanofiltration (NF) has been focused as advanced drinking water treatment process for removing trace chemicals (e.g. pesticides, endocrine disrupting chemicals) and disinfection by-products precursors. The removal profiles and mechanism, however, have been unknown yet, because NF shows different performance according to the characteristics of chemicals as well as the materials of membranes. It is important to estimate the removal performance for the optimum application to drinking water treatment systems.
The objective of this study is to estimate the applicability of NF membrane in terms of removing trace chemicals. Experiments were carried out in a semi-batch filtration system. Four commercially membranes, with the same salt rejection (approximately 50~60%), were used, and pesticides, phenol compounds and phthalic acid esters were employed as target chemicals. Results showed that several types of trace chemicals were adsorbed onto membrane separate layer, therefore the values of observed rejection were high at initial filtration stage. Depending on the adsorption features, rejection was gradually decreased due to membrane adsorption sites coming to equilibrium. It was found that rejection of several types of trace chemicals depended on the function of molecular width. Negative rejection values were also observed in four membranes, depending on simple molecular structure on target chemicals.

Growth and phenology of Quercus serrata grown under different temperature conditions
Hisanori OKUDA*, Atsushi NAKASHIMA**, Tatsuya KUSHIDA***, Shiro NAKAO**, Hiroyuki YAMADA**, Shinobu YABU**
*Graduate School of System Engineering,Wakayama University
*Faculty of System Engineering,Wakayama University
***The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo
[OKUDA Hisanori]s034014@sys.wakayama-u.ac.jp
The growth of Quercus serrata seedlings were investigated grown under several controlled temperature conditions of outdoor temperatures altered by -1.0C, 0.0C, +1.0C, +2.0C, and +3.0C. As a result, elongation, number of leaves, length between leaves, flushing times and diameter of the main shoot were greater under +3.0C treatment. However, leaf area and leaf thickness of seedlings under +3.0C treatment became almost the same as leaf area and leaf thickness of seedlings under 0.0C treatment. Advance of autumnal leaves under warmer condition was overdue. Many seedlings under +3.0C treatment didn't shed leaves and abscission layer of many seedlings under +3.0C treatments were not developed. There seemed that elongation, number of leaves, length between leaves, flushing times, diameter of the main shoot, advance of autumnal leaves, shed leaves period, and development of abscission layer of Quercus serrata seedlings should change under warmer condition.


Seasonal Changes of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Content of Aquatic Plant (Zizania latifolia) and Mass Balance of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Water Culture System of Zizania latifolia
*Keijiro ENARI, **Norio YAMANOBE, *Akiko KOHAMA, ***Masatomo NAKAYAMA
*Department of Environmental Information Engineering, Tohoku Institute of Technology
**Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Tohoku Institute of Technology
***Department of Civil Engineering, Tohoku Institute of Technology
A recent development to control eutrophication is done by the ecological engineering, which involves using plants for water purification. A number of researches about a water purification system have been conducted and the nutrient removal efficiency has been evaluated. However, there are few studies about the mass balance of nutrient content and the amount of absorption by aquatic plants. In this study, an experiment in a water culture system inhibiting the nitrification and denitrification was conducted to evaluate nitrogen and phosphorus content of aquatic plant Zizania latifolia, which is beneficial for nutrient absorption and nutrient elimination from an enclosed system serving as food for migrating swans, and the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus absorption from May to December in 2002 (32 weeks).
The results were as follows: Z.latifolia grew as time, and the maximum wet weight of a Z.latifolia was taken in September (562g) and the maximum dry weigh of a Z.latifolia was taken in October (78.5g). The Nitrogen and phosphorus content of a Z.latifolia was increased from May to October, and the maximum values taken were about 2080mg and about 400mg, respectively. Finally, the nitrogen and phosphorus mass balance of the content of Zizania latifolia and the amount of removal from the culture solution from May to October (except September) was evaluated as 70 - 110.

Pilot plant study on nitrification efficiency at the river water purification plants
WATANABE Taku*ASATO Kazuaki*AKISHIDA Hiroyuki*AUNNO Syuuji **AYOSHIDA Naruhito **AISE Tsutomu**AWAKABAYASHI Kenji**AHAYASAKO Yoshiharu***
*: Foundation of River & Watershed Environment Management
**: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Keihin Office of River
***: (former) Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Keihin Work Office, River Environment Section, (present) Ministry of the Environment
[WATANABE Taku] watanabe-tk@kasen.or.jp
The Tsurumi River has such water quality problem as high ammonia nitrogen concentration which adversely affects aquatic animals and causes high BOD value resulting from the N-BOD. For the river water purification plant its treatment efficiency was mainly evaluated by BOD values and little data was collected for the nitrification efficiency. This study shows the data of nitrification which was measured at three pilot plants in the g Demonstration Experiments of River Water Purification Technology at the Tsurumi Riverh, and these technologies were revealed to be applicable for the ammonia nitrogen control in these urban rivers. Besides, applicability of the river water purification technology was examined again in this paper in comparison with the other measures of introducing advanced treatment in public wastewater systems or in domestic wastewater treatment tanks.

Respirometric identification of hydrolysis kinetics for the modelling of anaerobic municipal sludge digestion process
YASUI Hidenari*, FUJISHIAM Shigeki*, KOMATSU Kazuya*, IGARASHI Hideaki**, OHASHI Akiyoshi**, HARADA Hideki**
*R& D division, Kurita Water industries Ltd., Japan
**Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan
Kinetic modelling on the hydrolysis stage of municipal sludge, which is considered as the rate-limiting step in the anaerobic digestion process, was studied using anaerobic respirometry. The respirograms in the batch tests revealed the composition of primary sludge and excess sludge could be classified into several fractions having different kinetics. In the degradation of primary sludge, a spiking gas production originated from soluble readily biodegradable compounds was detected in the initial phase. The once dropped gas production rate increased again due to production of slowly biodegradable compounds throughout the solid disintegration stage. Respirograms of the excess sludge digestion showed consistent zero-order rate-expression of Monod type in spite of conducting tests with different F/M ratio. The rate of gas production in the phase was proportional to the amount of excess sludge to be digested. This result suggests that while endogenous respiration by microorganisms in the excess sludge a part of internal cell material was released to the bulk liquid as fermented low-molecular organics being major source of the methane gas. Based on the respirograms, kinetic model for primary and excess sludge digestion were developed according to similar manner of Activated Sludge Models and Anaerobic Digestion Model proposed by IWA task groups.

A study on process configurations incorporating physical-chemical treatment for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge _ in the case of heat treatment
Masanobu Takashima
Dept. of Architect. and Civil Eng. Fukui University of Technology
This study was conducted to examine the process configurations for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge, when combined with physical-chemical treatment. Heat treatment was chosen as representative physical-chemical treatment. First, a preliminary batch test was run to investigate the efficacy of heat treatment at 120 oC for 0.5 ? 2 hours. Compared to control (no heat treatment), heat treatment showed 2.4 ? 3.0 times more methane production from digested sludge. Then, four types of process configurations, namely, control, pre-treatment, post-treatment and intermediate-treatment, were compared in the continuous experiment, incorporating heat treatment at 120 oC for 1 hour. At steady-state, the post-treatment gave the highest methane production, and on the other hand, the intermediate-treatment achieved the highest volatile solids destruction. Therefore, the heat treatment was demonstrated to be best applied after sewage sludge was once digested. The disadvantages of those configurations were the reduction of SRT and impairment of sludge dewaterability. It was confirmed, however, that the impaired dewaterability was overcome by the use of polymer and inorganic coagulants together.

Evaluation of Anaerobic Co-digestion System of Sewage Sludge and Garbage by Life Cycle Assessment
WATANABE Isamu*, KOMATSU Toshiya*, HIMENO Shuji*, FUJITA Shoichi*
*: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, JAPAN
[KOMATSU Toshiya] koma@nagaokaut.ac.jp
Anaerobic digestion of garbage using sludge digesters in sewage treatment plant is expected to be an effective energy recovery method from garbage. In this research, we tried to evaluate anaerobic co-digestion system of sewage sludge and garbage by Life Cycle Assessment. We presumed the city population to be 200,000 and compared five scenarios for garbage treatment : 1 incineration, 2 incineration after co-digestion (treatment ratio of garbage 30), 3 incineration after co-digestion (treatment ratio of garbage 80), 4 composting after co-digestion (treatment ratio of garbage 30), 5 composting after co-digestion (treatment ratio of garbage 80).As categories for evaluation, we set up the cost, amount of energy consumption, and emission of CO2, NOX, SOX, dioxins, heavy metals. As a result, there was no remarkable difference between scenarios in cost. We integrated the environmental impact categories by the Distance to Target method. The scenario 5 was the most excellent in this evaluation method. It is concluded that the anaerobic co-digestion system is effective in the case when treatment ratio of garbage is high and composting after co-digestion is carried out.


Study on applicability and operation factor of thermophilic methane fermentation to garbage treatment in high concentration under once-a-day feeding condition
Feng HONG*, Hiroshi TSUNO*, Taira HIDAKA*, Jihoon CHEON*
*: Dept. of Urban and Environ. Eng., Graduate School of Eng., Kyoto Univ, CREST of JST
[Feng HONG] hong@biwa.eqc.kyoto-u.ac.jp
The applicability and operation factors of thermophilic methane fermentation for garbage treatment in high concentration under once-a-day feeding condition were investigated by using a semi-continuous flow completely-mixed reactor. The experiment were conducted by changing the HRT from 158 to 9 days and the CODcr volumetric loading rate from 1.75 to 25.6 Kg/(m3Ed) under the conditions of a temperature of 55 and a constant feeding TS of 15%. Some reactors were operated with returning solids materials for keeping the microorganism in the reactor at high concentration. The methane fermentation system could respond successfully, when CODcr volumetric loading rate were increased up to 25.6 Kg/(m3Ed) under the condition of returning solids materials. It is suggested that the appropriate CODcr volumetric loading rate would be 20 KgCODcr/(m3Ed), corresponding to the HRT of 11 days, for the reactor with returning solids materials, and 6-10 KgCODcr/(m3Ed) for the reactor without returning solids materials. More than 80% of garbage was transformed to methane gas as calculated on COD base. The stable ammonia concentrations under the conditions of each organic loading rate decreased from 2680 to 1500mgN/L with increasing CODcr volumetric loading rate. Methane fermentation activity was obtained to be 2.2g COD-CH4/(gVSSEd).

Fundamental Evaluation of New Effective Adsorption Biogas Storage Technology
Shuji HIMENO*, Taiga TOYOTA*, Toshiya KOMATSU*, Shoichi FUJITA* and Hiromichi SAWAHARA**
*Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan
** Tsukishima Kikai CO., LTD., Japan
Effective utilization of sludge-digestion gas (biogas) could be contributed to promotion of reducing greenhouse gasses and creation of a recycling society. However, the delay in the development of gas storage technology prevents the effective utilization. In this paper a new technology of biogas storage system is introduced, and the capability of the new system is evaluated.
First, we evaluated the adsorbent suitable for this system. High pressure adsorption equilibria of methane and carbon dioxide at 298K up to 6 MPa on various adsorbents were measured, and their adsorbents were evaluated in consideration of net dimensionless density [V/V] for this system. We found that the high packed density activated carbon made from the coconut cell is suitable for this system.
Secondly, we measured and modeling of the biogas storage capacity of activated carbon. Adsorption equilibria of binary mixture of methane and carbon dioxide at 298K and pressures to 1 MPa were also measured with the volumetric-flow desorption method and analyzed using an Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST) which was one of the most general multi component adsorption equilibrium theories. The IAST gave the good prediction of adsorption equilibrium of methane and carbon dioxide mixed gases that were primary components of biogas. Therefore, biogas storage capacities are probably predicted by the IAST, and net biogas storage capacities of this technology are 13 times larger and 9 times larger than that of conventional compressed storage at 0.3 MPa and 0.7 MPa respectively.
Finally, influences of impurities in biogas on adsorption performance were evaluated. We conclude that the major cause of decreasing on adsorption performance was moisture in biogas, and the storage capacity was maintainable for a long period of time by removing moisture from biogas.

The characteristics of continuous hydrogen fermentation with membrane bioreactor
Dong-Yeol LEE*, Tatsuya NOIKE*
*Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, JAPAN
[Dong-Yeol LEE] leedy05@epl1.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
This study investigated the characteristics of continuous hydrogen fermentation with a membrane bioreactor (MBR) under mesophilic condition of 35. A continuous flow chemostat-type reactor (CTR) was also operated at the same condition for a comparison. The stable hydrogen fermenation without methane production was successfully achieved for 35days in the both reactors at the hydraulic retention time of 9hrs. The following stoichiometric equation was obtained for the stable hydrogen fermentation in the MBR: Glucose -> 0.86H2 + 0.34CO2 + 0.1formate + 0.04succinate + 0.25acetate + 0.16lactate + 0.19propionate + 0.5butyrate + 0.035biomass(C5H9O3N). The hydrogen production rate in the MBR was 2.45-2.56l/l/day, which was higher by around 2.25times than 0.95?0.97l/l/day in the CTR. The specific hydrogen and VFAs production rates in the MBR were very lower than that of CTR, indicating that in MBR has more loading capacitiy. For the MBR, the membrane fouling was found after a continuous operation of 35days. Based on the results of the batch filtration test and the measurement of extracellular polymer substances (EPS), it could be considered that the decrease of permeate flux was mainly caused by the deposition of EPS on the membrane surface.


Isolation and Characterization of Polystyrene Degrading Microorganisms for Zero Emission Treatment of Expanded Polystyrene
Eisaku OIKAWA1, Khin Thida Linn2, Takeshi ENDO2, Taneaki OIKAWA3, Yoshinobu ISHIBASHI4
1Organo Corporation, New Energy Industrial Technology Development Organization Fellow.
2Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University.
3Research Institute of Creative Biotechnology Corporation. 4Department Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University
Isolation of bacteria which could decompose styrene and polystyrene as carbon source was achieved to actualize the biological zero emission treatment of expanded polystyrene. Isolated microorganisms by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis were Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. for styrene decomposition, and Xanthomonas sp. and Sphingobacterium sp. for polystyrene decomposition. Especially, Bacillus sp. STR-Y-O strain decomposed both styrene and polystyren. Styrene and polystyrene were reduced 40 % (9g) and 56 % (34g) of initial concentrations (quantity), respectively, in 8 days by strain STR-Y-O. The result is the first report for polystyrene biodegradation . It became possible that limonene melted expanded polystyrene, and styrene and polystyrene as melting matter were decomposed by the isolated microorganisms. In a series of experiments, the possibility that the zero emission process of expanded polystyrene was shown by those microorganisms.

Fundamental Study on effective utilization of the shochu waste stillage
Sumio MASUDA*, Masahito YAMAUCHI**, Kentarou YASUI***, Yutaka DOTE* and Toshiro MARUYAMA*
*: Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Miyazaki University, JAPAN
**:Department of Civil Engineering, Kagoshima National College of Technology, JAPAN @
***: Master Course Student at Graduate School of Engineering, Miyazaki University, JAPAN
[Sumio MASUDA] t0c203u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp
Shochu waste stillage which is the local vegetable industrial waste 44.8 ten thousand ton annually is discharged in Kyushu, and the disposal is dumping into sea and manuring the filelds with dung. The shochu waste stillage is an organic substance of the natural derivation, and it is necessary to utilize effectively as resources.
In this study, for the purpose of examining solid-liquid separation in the squeezing filtration and the property of the squeezing filtrate of the shochu waste stillage, the squeezing hour was fixed for 5 minutes, and the squeezing filtration experiment in which sweet potato, pressure by the barley shochu waste stillage and aperture the wire gauze changed was carried out, and it seemed to obtain the result next. 1j12.5kPa pressure was optimum by wire gauze of 120m for the water content of the squeezing residue. 2jAs for SS concentration in the squeezing filtrate for the sweet potato shochu waste stillage, sweet potato and barley shochu waste stillage became 600?830mg/L, 5000?7400mg/L with the wire gauze of 40m respectively. 3jEthanol in condensates was detected just after decompression and distillation starts in all distillation temperature, pressure, and about 20000 mg/L. 4jThe most suitable condition to collect ethanol was distillation temperature of 80 degrees Celsius, 27kPa of pressure, and distillation time of about 5 minutes.

Crystallization process using calcium silicate hydrate for phosphorus removal
MORIYAMA Katsumi*, KOJIMA Toshihiro**, KOGA Kenichi ***,TAKINOSouhei**** and MINAWA Yoshikazu****
*Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Kyoritsu University
**School of Science and Engineering, Saga University
***Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University
****Department of Sewage Works, Yokosuka City
[MORIYAMA Katsumi] moriyama@kyukyo-u.ac.jp
Artificial seed crystal of calcium silicate hydrate viz. tobermorite crystals is developed for crystallization of calcium phosphate. The effect of the particle size of the seed crystal on the crystallization process is examined using different diameter of 0.5-1.0mm and 1.0-1.7mm. The influent concentration PO4-P is 50 (mg/L) and operating condition for upward flow, which refers reaction time, is the range of SV(Space Velocity) 1-10 (hr-1). Phosphorus recovery rate using the small particle is more than 75% under all operating conditions of SV. Also, it is shown that precipitation of calcium phosphate, which should be reduced in the crystallization process, is well controlled. On the other hand, the phosphorus recovery rate using the large particle size is less than 55% with the increase in SV.

Basic Study on Wet Extraction Process of Phosphorus from Sewage Sludge Ash
Kazuyuki OSHITA *, Mari IWASHITA **, Masaki TAKAOKA *, Nobuo TAKEDA *
* Department@of Urban and Environmental@EngineeringCGraduate School of EngineeringCKyoto University, JAPAN
** Electrical &.Control Systems Eng, Dept3, Public Facilities, Infrastructure Systems Div., Industrial & Power Systems & Service Company, TOSHIBA
[OSHITA Kazuyuki] oshita@epsehost.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp
Sewage treatment sludge incineration ash contains significant amount of phosphorus. Therefore, this study focused on wet extraction process of phosphorus from sewage sludge incineration ash by inorganic acid. For the extraction process, experiments of phosphorus extraction from ash by wet process were carried out and mechanisms of phosphorus extraction and the optimum conditions were investigated. The optimum conditions for phosphorus extraction are: the extraction time is 2 hours, the temperature is 20, the acid adding dosage H+/P is about 0.095. The extraction efficiency of phosphorus from sewage sludge belongs to the H+/P value. The approximate exponential equation of the phosphorus extraction efficiency on the function of H+/P was obtained. However, the extraction efficiency was disproportional to temperature. This was because the extracted phosphorus reacted with aluminum and precipitated into the sediment. This mechanism was confirmed by the ESCA analysis. According to the analysis results by SEM-EDX and EPMA, phosphorus made chemical bonds with calcium, aluminum and iron, and was embed in the Si crystal part of the sediment.

Tsuyoshi Imai*, Takashi Fukuda*, Sadaaki Murakami**, Masao Ukita*, Masahiko Sekine* and Takaya Higuchi*
* Department of Civil and Environmental Eng., Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi University
** Ube national College of Technology
[Tsuyoshi IMAI] imai@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp
In this study, the characteristics of solubilization of sewage sludge (primary sludge + excess sludge) from wastewater treatment plant by subcritical water oxidation process were investigated. The process was found to enhance the solubilization considerably. The solubilization rate of sludge, indexed as the reduction rate of MLSS, increased considerably after the treatment (just below 250 oC). More than 95% of phosphorus can be recovered by MAP (Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate) method from the treated sludge by subcritical water oxidation process (more than 200 oC). It was also observed that effective volume reduction was achieved when the treated temperature was 200 oC. As these results, it was shown that the optimum temperature range of this process was between 200 oC and 250 oC. These results also demonstrate the applicability of subcritical water oxidation process as an attractive novel process of sewage sludge solubilization.

Transport characteristics of high-density substances of comminuter wastewater in sewer pipes
YAMAGUCHI, Tokiyo * CSHINOHARA, Hisashi * CKUSUDA, Tetsuya **
*: Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School, Kyushu University, JAPAN
**: Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Graduate School, Kyushu University, JAPAN
[YAMAGUCHI, Tokiyo] urbenv20@civil.kyushu-u.ac.jp
[KUSUDA, Tetsuya] kusuda@civil.kyushu-u.ac.jp
Disposal of raw garbage is one of the major problems on solid wastes in urban areas. One of the solutions is to introduce these matters into "Raw Garbage Recycling System with Comminuter and Sewer." Clogging of sewer pipes followed by deposition of high-density substances is of critical for this system. So that, this paper discusses the possibility of deposition of high-density substances such as seashell and egg shell in sewer pipes. The major conclusions in this study are as follows : (1) Both seashell and egg shell which are over 2.00mm in diameter may deposit under the standard design condition ; and (2) The minimum critical friction velocity for heavier 2% of them is 0.04m/s.

Energy Loss at Three-way Circular Manhole
ARAO Shinji*, KUSUDA Tetsuya**
*: Department of Civil Engineering, Kyushu Kyoritsu University, JAPAN
**: Department of Urban & Environmental Engineering, Graduate School, Kyushu University, JAPAN
[ARAO Shinji] arao@kyukyo-u.ac.jp
[KUSUDA Tetsuya] kusuda@civil.kyushu-u.ac.jp
The energy loss at manholes in a storm sewer network is often compared with the friction loss in pipes under surcharge flow. Especially the energy loss at three-way manholes under road crossings is much large due to collision of flows from upstream pipes and occurrence of large-scale vortices in the manholes. Some researchers have already investigated the energy loss at three-way manholes. However, the relationship between the energy loss and the water depth in manholes has not been studied yet. In this study, the effect of water depth on energy loss at a three-way circular manhole was examined. Experimental results indicated that the loss coefficient on the main pipes and the lateral pipe was influenced by water depth in the manhole and the ratio of the flow rates in the lateral and in the downstream pipes.

Sewage treatment by sulfur redox cycle action in a system consisting of a UASB pre-reactor and a aerobic post-reactor
Haruhiko SUMINO*, Takashi YAMAGUCHI**, Daisuke TANIKAWA**, Yuko OKAZAKI***, Nobuo ARAKI***,Shuji KAWAKAMI***, Shinichi YAMAZAKI****, Hideki HARADA*****
*: Hiroshima Prefectural Institute of Industrial Science and Technology
**: Dept. of Civil Engineering , Kure National College of Technology
***: Dept. of Civil Engineering, Nagaoka National College of Technology
****: Dept. of Civil Engineering, Kouchi National College of Technology
*****: Dept. of Environ. Sys. Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology
[SUMINO haruhiko]sumino@sankaken.gr.jp, [YAMAGUCHI takashi]yamaguti@kure-nct.ac.jp
ABSTRACT; We propose a new sewage treatment system consisting of a UASB reactor as an anaerobic pretreatment unit and an aerobic posttreatment unit. The aerobic unit is composed of a combination of a trickling filter reactor and a fluidized bed reactor, which together polish up the UASB effluent. A feasibility test was carried out by feeding raw sewage for over 250 days with a 7.18 m3 pilot system at a municipal sewage treatment plant. Circulation of a part of the trickling filter effluent stream to the UASB as a sulfate source improved the quality of the final effluent from the system. Influent unfiltered 303 mg/L BOD decreased to 150 mg/L in UASB effluent and subsequently to 13 mg/L in the aerobic unit effluent in 12 hours in the HRT of the whole system. Vial-activity batch tests suggested that the main electron flow for BOD oxidation in the UASB sludge shifted completely from methane production to sulfate reduction after 90 days of operation. Community structure was examined by PCR and DGGE targeting 16S rDNA with band excision and sequence analysis. Thiomonas and Halothiobacillus were the predominant sulfur oxidizing bacterial species in the posttreatment sludge.

Process Performance and Sludge Behaviors of Multi-staged UASB reactor for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)
Pairaya KUCIVILIZE*, Akiyoshi OHASHI*, Hideki HARADA*
*Dept. of Environ. Systems Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology
A multi-staged UASB reactor was applied to Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) which contains high strength of particulate organics and lipid. Two sets of laboratory-scale reactor were operated for 15 months in parallel at different temperature; 55C and 35C. The thermophilic reactor accommodated a COD loading rate of 25 kg COD_m-3_d-1 with COD removal of 73.9}9.6, while the mesophilic reactor achieved 10 kg COD_m-3_d-1 with COD removal of 84.9}5.4. Throughout the whole duration the methane conversion (defined by methane COD recovered per COD removed) was higher by 14% by the thermophilic reactor than by the mesophilic reactor. Both reactors performed satisfactory lipid removals of above 80%. The extent of accumulation of un-degraded orgnic solids in the mesophilic reactor was more significant rather than in the thermophilic reactor. Both reactors eventually exhibited stable reactor performance over 7 months at each maximum organic loading rate, showing no sign of process failure throughout the period.

Corrosion Factor and Prevention of the Steel Plate in the Landfill Sites Using the Steel Plate Liner
KOBAYASHI Naoki*, KOMATSU Toshiya*, HIMENO Shuji*, FUJITA Shoichi*, KAMADA Kanae**
*: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, JAPAN
**: Yokogawa Bridge Corporation, JAPAN
[KOMATSU Toshiya] koma@nagaokaut.ac.jp
In the new type landfill site system using the steel plate liner, cathodic protection, heavy duty coating and corrosion margin will be used as corrosion prevention methods of steel plates. Corrosion margin should be adopted as a backup prevention method and it is necessary to measure the corrosion rate of steel plate in waste to determine the corrosion margin. In this study, the corrosion rate of an unpainted steel plate was measured and the performance of cathodic protection and various types of heavy duty coating was checked by landfill site exposure examinations. The results showed that both cathodic protection and heavy duty coating were effective for preventing corrosion in waste. The laboratory corrosion examinations for investigating the influence of pH, chloride ion, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were also conducted, because these factors seemed to play important roles in corrosion. It was suggested that DO in water which touches to steel plate has the most significant influence on corrosion.

Sorption and Decomposition of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Solid Waste Layer
Hiroshi Asakura*, Takafumi Nakatsu*, Toshihiko Matsuto*, Nobutoshi Tanaka*
*Division of Environmental and Resource Eng., Graduate School of Eng., Hokkaido Univ.
Four types of solid waste were sampled from two municipal solid waste landfill sites (A and B-landfill). By sorption experiment and biodegradation experiment in anaerobic condition, distribution coefficient KP, leachable amount from waste material X0, and decomposition rate k were determined for EDCs (endocrine disrupting chemicals). Using the obtained parameters, EDCs concentration in leachate from A and B-landfill was estimated. Consequently, the following results were obtained. (1) Determined parameters are KP; 101-103 for alkylphenols (APs), 100-101 for bisphenol A (BPA), 101-104 L/kg for phthalic acid esters (PAEs). X0; <102-103 for APs and BPA, 102-104 g/kg for PAEs. k; 10-4-10-2 for APs, <10-4-10-3 for BPA, 10-2 for DEP, <10-4-10-3 day-1 for DBP, BBP and DEHP. (2) Using KP, X0 and k, concentration of EDCs in leachate of A and B-landfill was calculated and compared with the experimental value. The estimated value was influenced by k value. The estimated value approximately agreed with experimental value. Due to high initial concentration of BPA and low decomposition rate of DBP and DEHP, more than several ten years will be needed for their concentration in leachate to decrease to environmental level.

Properties and formation of bottom ash particles
Taisuke Odera*,Takayuki Shimaoka**, Hirofumi Nakayama**
*:Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School, Kyushu University
**:Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University
[Taisuke Odera] odera@ies.kyushu-u.ac.jp
[Takayuki Shimaoka] shimaoka@ies.kyushu-u.ac.jp
[Hirofumi Nakayama] nakayama@ies.kyushu-u.ac.jp
Recently, recycling of incineration residue has been required, because of shortage in capacity of landfilling. In order to utilize incineration residue safely and effectively, it is necessary to grasp the relationship between composition of waste for incineration and properties of bottom ash. The formation of bottom ash particle in incineration process was discussed to investigate the influence of municipal solid waste composition on properties of bottom ash. In addition, single particle crushing experiment was done to investigate the strength of bottom ash particle. As a result, it was concluded that the ratio of incombustible waste in municipal solid waste leads great influence on the properties of bottom ash such as a particle formation, the grain size distribution of bottom ash, and strength of an single particle.

A new quantitative method to estimate a nitrogen origin of contaminated water from several nitrogen resources
Kenichi YAMANO *, Hiroyuki II **, Tatemasa HIRATA**, Masahide ISHIZUKA**
*Dowa Mining Co.,Ltd.
**Department of Systems Engineering , Wakayama University
[II Hiroyuki] hiro@sys.wakayama-u.ac.jp
A new separation index (SNI) was proposed to estimate the source of nitrogen in nitrogen contaminated water. SNI is defined as the equivalent ratio of SO42- to a total of NO2-, NO3-, and NH4+. SNI values of typical land use areas were measured in order to estimate actual SNI values. As a result, the ratio of S and N for chemical fertilizer was about 1 but the ratio for livestock manure, domestic waste water and organic nitrogen derivation was extremely low. Then, a mixing ratio of nitrogen derived from chemical fertilizer to total nitrogen was calculated from the SNI values of the sampled groundwater using representative SNI values for fertilizer and livestock waste. The mixing ratio was calculated for heavily nitrate contaminated groundwater in the North West of Kyushu. Each nitrogen origin determined by SNI analysis was in agreement with the actual land use. Therefore SNI analysis is a useful indicator for determining the ratio of nitrogen source to total nitrogen.

Affect of the Farming in Recharge Area on Water Quality of Spring in Central Hokkaido, Japan
Koichi YAMAMOTO*, Takuya KOBAYASHI**, Harukuni TACHIBANA**
*National Institute of Land and Infrastructure Management, Ministry of Land and Transport
**Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University
The water quality of springs in hilly areas of the central part of Hokkaido was studied to clarify the relationship between agricultural activities on recharge area and chemical components in shallow groundwater. Through the wide scale survey on the springs in this area, it was shown that the nitrate nitrogen concentration of spring water was dependent on the nitrogen load input into recharge area. We selected one of the springs and studied water quality change with rainfall. Principal Component Analysis was applied to the concentrations of chemical components in spring water and revealed that there were two main groups of fluctuations in the concentration: i) Inorganic components (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO42-, and NO3--N) being eluted from soils in agricultural area by nitrification; and ii) Organic components (DOC) and by-products of decomposition of organic materials in soils (4.3Bx and DON). The spring discharged phosphorus load mainly in particulate form. In some part of the farmland in the recharge area, subsurface soils were removed to level the farmland. We observed the leveling work affected the amount of particulate phosphorous load. After the leveling work, particulate phosphorous load was discharged 19.2 times as much as before. In order to control the runoff of nutrients, it is required to control nutrient load to recharge areas by reducing fertilizer as well as to prevent the runoff of soil particles that contain high concentration of phosphorus.

Relationship between Water Quality in Forest-Rivers and Geographical and Botanical Properties of Watershed
Hideaki NAGARE 1), Shigeo FUJII 1), Isao SOMIYA 2) and Sawako SERIZAWA 3)
1) Research Center for Environmental Quality Control, Kyoto University
2) Faculty of Science and Technology, Ryukoku University
3) Nippon Jogesuidou Sekkei Co., LTD.
This paper focuses on the relationship between water quality in forest-rivers and properties of their watershed in geology and/or botany to find out the mechanism which determines water quality in foest-rivers in mountaineous area. Water quality in 26 forest-rivers was investigted at upper streams of rivers in the Lake Biwa watershed, and their properties were determined from geological or vegetation map to explore the relation between them. Those 26 rivers were separated into 6 groups based on their watershed properties, while nutrient concentration in such groups were different each other, suggesting certain geological or botanical property, or a pair of geology and vegetation determines nutrient concentration in river.

Nitrogenous BOD Evaluation Model for River Quality Model
*Reseach and Development Center, Nippon Koei Co.,Ltd.
**River and Hydraulic Engineering Dept., Nippon Koei Co.,Ltd.
[Akio NOHARA] a4714@n-koei.co.jp
A nitrogenous BOD(N-BOD) is the primary contributor not to meet environmental quality standard of BOD at urban river. In this study, N-BOD property in Turumigawa river was examined through analyzing monthly observation data. Reasonable correlation between N-BOD and NH4-N was obtained at river section that receive secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plant, and as a result derived empirical N-BOD prediction model. The combination use of grid-based pollutant load runoff model and empirical N-BOD prediction model yield good agreement between the observed and predicted BOD concentration monthly behavior.

Integrated model for water quality analysis in the Chikugo basin and the Ariake Sea
VONGTHANASUNTHORN Narumol*, KOGA Kenichi**, ARAKI Hiroyuki***, YAMANISHI Hiroyuki***, OHGUSHI Koichiro**
*: Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, JAPAN
**: Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, JAPAN
***: Institute of Lowland Technology, Saga University, JAPAN
[VONGTHANASUNTHORN Narumol] 01td55@edu.cc.saga-u.ac.jp
[KOGA Kenichi] kogake@cc.saga-u.ac.jp
The water quality model for integrated water management in the Chikugo basin and the Ariake Sea is developed in this study. The integrated model is composed of three models: 1) the tank model; 2) the river model and 3) the two-dimensional box model of the Ariake Sea. Water quality parameters in this study are COD, SS and nutrient concentrations. Sensitivity analysis is carried out using the integrated model to evaluate the contribution of discharged loading from land area on water quality in the Ariake Sea from 1991 to 2000. It indicates that the nutrient concentrations in the vicinity of the mouth of the Chikugo River tend to increase during the period of high loading from the Chikugo basin while there is slightly effect of the discharged loading on COD and SS in the same area.

The coliform bacillus pollution of municipal sewerage drainage
Sumio MASUDA*, Masahito YAMAUCHI**, Souta WATANABE***, Nobuhiro KURAYAMA*, Yutaka DOTE* and Toshiro MARUYAMA*
*:Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Miyazaki University,JAPAN
**: Department of Civil Engineering, Kagoshima National College of Technology, JAPAN
***: Nippo Survey & design office inc
[Sumio MASUDA] t0c203u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp
The author has conducted a water quality research targeting to measure the pollution caused by coliform bacillus in Kiyotake River and the entire river that flows into it starting from the source of the river flow until to the Kiyotake Town and it was found that while pollution at the upstream pass the environment standard, the middle and the lower stream highly exceeded it. Particularly, the pollution level of Oka River that flows to Kiyotake River was reported to be very high. This is caused by inflow of domestic wastewater to Oka River through municipal sewerage system, and is suspected to be the reason of the high pollution rate.In this research, focus was being put at municipal sewerage system drainage; the pollution rate, water quality and coliform bacillus concentration of domestic wastewater that flows into it and it was found that:1) Although the level of coliform bacillus of the treated wastewater flowing out from private or shared septic tank passes the environmental standard, it is still a cause of water pollution in municipal sewerage drainage.2) It was proven that the daily life drainage of the each home, which is being discharged to the river by going through the municipal sewerage drainage, was the cause of coliform group pollution of the Oak River.3) For private septic tank which is receiving annual legal inspection, it was proven that coliform group number of 103?106 MPN/100mL order is being discharged when water is used at most.4) It is found that the concentration of coliform group, Phosphoric acid, TOC, and SS in domestic wastewater (gray water) is very high and it is very important to strengthen the conversion from single type private sewage to combined type private sewage or to impose an appropriate maintenance system to every private sewage unit.

Evaluation of Nitrification Effects on BOD by Batch Experiments
Shigeo FUJII*, Masaki Matsuzawa**, Hideaki Nagare* and Yoshihisa Shimizu*
*Research Center for Environmental Quality Control, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, 1-2, Yumihama, Otsu, 520-0811, Japan
**Braxton Co., Hibiya-Central Bld., 1-2-9, Nishi-Shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0003, Japan
[Shigeo FUJII] fujii@biwa.eqc.kyoto-u.ac.jp
Effects of nitrification on BOD were evaluated with two kinds of batch experiments, and the problems caused by N-BOD were discussed with descriptions of test manuals, experimental data and literature review. The main results drawn in this study are as follows: (1) most of water analysis manuals do not clearly describe nitrification on BOD test is an interference nor the matter to be measured, (2) ammonium nitrogen in dilution water causes a positive error in BOD test, and can overestimate N-BOD values more than two times, (3) BOD values measured with present methods can not express the pollution level because of N-BOD appearance during the purification development. As a conclusion, it is recommended that oxygen consumption by nitrification should be eliminated from the contents of BOD, and the test procedure should adapt an inhibition process for nitrification in BOD measurement.

Study on water quality analysis in the reservoir of Isahaya Bay land reclamation project
KOGA Kenichi* , VONGTHANASUNTHORN N.** , ARAKI Hiroyuki***, YAMANISHI Hiroyuki***, KAWABE Manabu **, OHWA Norio****
*: Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University
**: Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University
***: Institute of Lowland Technology, Saga University
****: Tokyo Construction Consultants Co. , Ltd.
[KOGA Kenichi] kogake@cc.saga-u.ac.jp
Main purpose of this study is to analyze behavior of water quality in the reservoir of Isahaya Bay land reclamation project. After developing water quantity model to calibrate with observed chloride concentration, an important phenomenon viz. sea water seepage from the Ariake Sea is found. Water quality model is developed and calibrated with the observed data.@The results obtained from the developed models show good agreement with the observed data. Through sensitivity analysis, it is revealed that coagulation/flocculation by sea water affect settlement velocity of SS and dissolved phosphorus. Also it is shown that contributions of discharged pollutant load from the watersheds, release/resuspension from the bottom mud and settlement with flocculation are examined.

Mutual relation between bottom sediments and water column during cold water inflow and reservoir cooling in a shallow reservoir
Kunihiko Amano*, Jianhua Li**, and Hiroyuki Suzuki***
*River Restoration Team, Water Environment Research Group, Public Works Research Institute, Japan
**Water Quality Team, Water Environment Research Group, Public Works Research Institute, Japan
***River Environment Division, National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, Japan
Physical disturbance on the bottom sediments may have a significant role in controlling water quality of shallow lakes and reservoirs. Strong disturbance caused by fierce wind waves is know to resuspend bottom sediments and investigated intensively. However, density driven currents that can be generated at the boundary of water column and bottom sediments by surface cooling and cold water inflow are not well known. Due to understand the mechanism and magnitude of this process, we have conducted field measurements in a shallow reservoir. Cold water inflow to the reservoir in summer decreased the temperature of surface 15cm of the bottom sediments quickly suggesting the intrusion of colder bottom water to the pore of the bottom sediments. The concentration of ammonium nitrogen increases and dissolved oxygen decreases in the bottom water of the reservoir during this period. These records suggested that density driven currents caused by cold water inflow in the shallow reservoir can enhance the mixing of porewater and reservoir water.

Proposal of an Estimation Method for Standing Crops of Reed Communitiesby the Formulation of Reed Heights Distribution and its Application
Shuhei TANAKA*AShigeo FUJII*AKiyoshi YAMADA** and Naoki SAWAMOTO***
* Research Center for Environmental Quality Control, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto Univ.
**Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering, Ritsumeikan Univ.
*** Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan Univ.
Various studies have been conducted on reed communities for management coast environment around Lake Biwa, but most of them are based on qualitative description, which are difficult for quantitative evaluation. The objectives of this study are to propose an estimation method of standing crops of reed communities and to apply this method on the change of standing crops after reed plantation. The method was induced based on distribution patterns of reed heights, using three kinds of surveys carried out around Lake Biwa. One was a survey of a reed growth both in a natural and planted reed community on August 2001. Another was growth investigation of reeds planted in deep-pond experimental facilities every two weeks from March 2001 to January 2002. The other was that on a reed plantation field every month from December 1997 to October 2001. The following conclusions are drawn: 1) An estimation procedure was proposed for standing crops of reed communities. 2) This procedure estimates a change of standing crops after reed plantation. 3) At a low water level, reeds began to grow and contributed the pattern of reed heights distribution.

On-site treatment of turbid river water using Chitosan, a natural organic polymer coagulant
Akiyoshi TAKESHITA*, Nozomu ODA*, Masahiko SEKINE*, Masao UKITA*, Tsuyoshi IMAI*, Takaya HIGUCHI*
*Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University
Chitosan, acetylated of chitin, is a biodegradable cationic polymer. The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of chitosan for on-site treatment agent of turbid water caused by a river improvement work. The results of jar-tests indicate that flock of chitosan is much larger than that of aluminum sulfate, and turbidity treated by chitosan under moving water condition is much lower than that of aluminum sulfate. Residual turbidity shows good accordance with Reynolds number both in jar tests and in elliptical waterway tests. This means that by using Reynolds number as an indicator, jar test can predict residual turbidity in a river. Acute toxicity tests using Oryzias latipes indicate that 48hr-LC50 is about 5mg/L, and 48hr-EC50 is between 5mg/L and 7.5mg/L. Since the estimated optimal dosage of chitosan in a river is lower than 1ppm, chitosan has no acute toxicity in practical use. Applying chitosan to a river causes 1.1 ppm of BOD increase. The cost of chitosan is three times higher than that of aluminum sulfate.

Effect of thin film photocatalysis on light penetration by control of algal and photosynthetic bacterial adhesion
Jinglan HONG, Masahiro OTAKI
Department of Human Environmental Sciences, Ochanomizu University Tokyo 112-8610, Japan
In decolorization treatment of dye-wastewater by photosynthetic bacteria with visible light irradiation, excessive algal growth and adhesion on the wall of reactor caused a severe problem such as filter-clogging and low light penetration in reactor. In this study, the effect of thin film photocatalysis on adhesion of algal or photosynthetic bacteria was investigated. The adhesion of algae and photosynthetic bacteria could be controlled by photocatalytic reaction with UV and UV+FL irradiation, whereas it could not be controlled by surface property of TiO2. Moreover, inactivation mechanism by TiO2 on algae was observed by microscopy using of Chroococus sp. as probe. It was suggested that Chroococcus sp. cells were activated by TiO2 and the nonspecific effects of membrane depolarization was enhanced. Then it overexpressed Ca2+ permeable cation channel and cell expanded by endosmosis which caused to death of cell.

Vertical Advection between Surface Water and Sediment by Tide
Shogo SAKITA*, Koji KUBO**, Ayako HASHIMOTO***, Tetsuya KUSUDA***
*Institute of Environmental Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University
**Project Engineering and Consultants Co.LTD
***Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University
Shogo SAKITA [sakita@ies.kyushu-u.ac.jp]
A Vertical transport process of substances between sediments and water in tidal rivers and shallow coastal zones is caused by swelling and shrinking of bubbles in the sediments such as nitrogen, due to increase and decrease in porewater pressure by tide. When water level is rising, the porewater pressure is increasing and bubbles in the sediments are gradually shrinking. When lowering, conversely, the porewater pressure is decreasing and the bubbles are swelling. As a result, it brings vertical water flow between sediments and water.
In this study, the vertical profile of volumetric gas content on some sediment cores and the transported water volume between sediments and water are measured and the relation between volumetric gas content and transported water volume is investigated. Furthermore, this process is simulated with a newly developed model. The results show that this additional transport process plays an important role in vertical mass transport. This process is applicable to water purification by increasing air bubbles in sediments.

Characteristics of suspended matters transport and variations in diatom-derived benthic Chl-a on the mud flat of the Ariake Sea
YAMANISHI Hiroyuki*, ARAKI Hiroyuki *, KOH Chul-Hwan **, KIYOKAWA Tohru***, MOGI Hiroyuki*** and KOGA Kenichi****
*Institute of Lowland Technology, Saga University, Japan
**School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Korea
***Graduate School of Engineering, Saga University, Japan
****Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Japan
[YAMANISHI Hiroyuki] yamanisi@ilt.saga-u.ac.jp
This study focused on the relation between transport of suspended matters and diatom-derived benthic Chl-a on Nanaura tidal flats of the Ariake sea. Measurements on hydraurics and water quality were obtained for one tide bimonthly on the variations in flow velocity, water depth,turbidity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, Chl-a , etc.by using some sensors and sampled water on a ship. As a result, suspended solids concentration (SSC) is rather high near the bottom bed during the initial accelerating tidal flow and during the final ebb retreat. In addition, the surface mudflat eroded at the initial flood tide is diatom rich sediment because of the increasing concentration of diatom-derived benthic Chl-a on the tidal flat under exposure. Consequently, the Chl-a along the transected line from the mud shore to 3 km offshore was higher concentration in the tidal flats area than offshore area. The relationship between SSC and Chl-a concentration is in proportion and then Chl-a mass per unit g dry SS can be calculated by the gradient of the relational line. This is one of the characteristics of mud transport and the governing factor for determining the physical and biological characteristics of the mudflat.

Influence of oxygen-deficient water body on Muscalista senhousia in Hakata Bay
KUMAGAI Hiroshi*, YAMASAKI Koreyoshi**, WATANABE Ryoichi**, FUiITA Kenichi***
*: Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, JAPAN
**: Department of Civil Engineering, Fukuoka University, JAPAN
***: Kyushu Environmental Evaluation Association, JAPAN
[KUMAGAI Hiroshi] kumagai@fihes.pref.fukuoka.jp
[YAMASAKI Koreyoshi] yama@fukuoka-u.ac.jp
[WATANABE Ryoichi] wata@fukuoka-u.ac.jp
[FUiITA Kenichi] fujita@keea.or.jp
Mussel, Muscalista senhousia, was surveyed in Hakata Bay in northern part of Kyushu island to study its seasonal changes. As a result, the annual motality of M. senhousia in the study area ranged from 90.0% to 93.3% when no oxygen deficient water body appeared. Numerical analyses were conducted to determine the parameters representing life characteristics and to reproduce seasonal changes of the M. senhousia density based on observed length-frequency distributions. Shell length-dry flesh weight relations obtained from the survey made possible estimation of the death number and dry flesh weight of M. senhousia at the observed stations. Furthermore the contents of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in dry samples of M. senhousia were analyzed and the oxygen demand to aerobically decompose them was estimated. In conclusion, extinction of M. senhousia by oxygen-deficient water body especially in late summer made a great negative impact on the benthic environment of Hakata Bay.

Analysis of contamination route of oysters with Norovirus (NV) on the basis of the genetic homology
UEKI You*, AKIYAMA Kazuo*, WATANABE Toru**, OMURA Tatsuo**
*: Miyagi Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment, JAPAN
**: Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, JAPAN
[UEKI You] youeki@ihe.pref.miyagi.jp
[WATANABE Toru] to-ru@water.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
Since raw oysters have been eaten in Japan, gastroenteritis by oysters contaminated with norovirus(NV) has become a serious medical or environmental problem. However, owing to the inability to cultivate NV in cell lines, behaviors of NV in the water environment have been hardly known. Therefore, the contamination route of oysters with NV has not been to determine yet. The objective of this study is to prove the contamination route by the genetic analysis of NV taken from patients of gastroenteritis, river water and oysters. When the outbreak of gastroenteritis by NV around city A in Miyagi prefecture was reported, NV genes were isolated from patients of gastroenteritis in city A, river B locating near city A and oysters cultivated in bay C into which river B flowed. The base sequence of capsid region in NV genes isolated from oyster was the same as those taken from river B. The similar sequence was detected in NV taken from patients in city A. High homology(>96.7%) was obtained also in polymerase region among these viruses. According to these results, it could be proved that river B and oysters in bay C were contaminated with NV excreted from patients of gastroenteritis in city A.

Evaluation of the Estrogenic Activity for Mixture of Chemicals and Environmental Samples by the Estrogen Receptor Binding Assay
Nairui LIU, Keisuke NAKANISHI, Naoki NAKAGAWA and Yoshinori KANJO
Graduate School of Eng., Osaka City Univ.
Nairui LIU:liu@me.civil.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp
Yoshinori KANJO:kanjo@urban.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp
A wide range of chemicals are reported to have a hormonal activity. These chemicals are classified with two groups; agonist and antagonist. When we measure hormonal activity in samples which contains both agonist and antagonist such as environmental water, it's difficult to obtain the total concentrations of chemicals binding to estrogen receptor. In this paper, we tried to measure the estrogenic activity by estrogen receptor binding assay. We arranged some mixtures of single/multi-component chemicals, and applied their relationships between concentrations and inhibition ratios with sigmoidal formulas. The results of estrogen receptor binding assay gave us the total concentrations of chemicals binding to estrogen receptor even if samples contained with both agonist and antagonist. The total concentrations of these chemicals were expressed with the equivalent values of 17-estradiol.

Sorption of Endocrine Disruptors onto Cell Membrane and the Effect of NOM
Kazuhiro IKEDA*, Yoshihisa SHIMIZU*, Takuya OGURI*, Saburo MATSUI**
*Research Center for Environmental Quality Control, Kyoto University, Japan
**Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Japan
[Kazuhiro IKEDA]ikeda@biwa.eqc.kyoto-u.ac.jp
[Saburo MATSUI]matsui@eden.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp
The sorption coefficient (Kmw) of several endocrine disruptors {17b-estradiol (E2), 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2), nonylphenol (NP), 4-(tert-octyl)phenol (OP) onto cell membrane were measured using artificial cell membranes for evaluating their bioavailability and bioconcentration potential; and the effects of co-existing natural organic matter (NOM) on the sorption was evaluated. The Kmw of endocrine disruptors were comparable to that of 3-4 ring PAHs, which suggested that the specific interaction between membrane and endocrine disruptors greatly contributed to the sorption. The NOM itself was neither sorbed onto cell membrane nor affected the membrane fluidity. The co-existence of NOM reduced sorption of NP, OP and PAHs onto cell membrane. But NOM did not affect sorption of E2 and EE2 onto cell membrane although their sorption coefficients onto NOM were comparable to those of OP and NP. These phenomena suggested that NP, OP and PAHs bound to NOM could not be sorbed onto cell membranes but E2 and EE2 bound to NOM could; that is, the behavior of E2 and EE2 bound to NOM was similar to the non-bound (free) E2 and EE2.

Soil Reduction Characteristics of the Resources Recycling Pots made from Shochu Waste Stillage
YAMAUCHI Masahito *, MASUDA Sumio**, KIHARA Masato *, SIMODOUZONO Akinobu *, YONEYAMA Kenjirou*** and INANAGA Shunji ****
*Department of Civil Engineering, Kagoshima National College of Technology, JAPAN
**Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Miyazaki University, JAPAN
***Aship co., Ltd.,JAPAN
**** Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, JAPAN
[YAMAUCHI Masahito] yamauti@kagoshima-ct.ac.jp
The sosei paper pot made from shochu waste stillage is expected to be realized in that it contains fertilizer ingredients and can be planted in the field.
In this research, the test paper taken from the side of the sosei paper pot was buried in the soil, and the ingredients analysis of that test paper and a material test and form investigation were conducted regularly to clarify the degradation characteristics of the pot in the soil.
The following results were obtained:1) It was clarified that the shochu waste stillage ingredients contained in the sosei paper buried in the soil were eluted into the soil, and or biodegradation was done in about five months. Furthermore, many hollows were observed in the fiber of the sosei paper when it was buried in the soil, and ten months later it was proved that the degradation of the fiber proceeded.2) It was buried in the soil, the sosei paper began to disappear about 360 days after, and after that showed an exponential change, and sosei paper did a disappeared (100%) completely on the 670th day. It found that about two years were needed so that sosei paper might disappear in the soil completely.
N.B. sosei paper ( sosei means reborn )

Effect of competing substances on antimony elution from surface soil around a smelter
SATTA Naoya*, HORIUCHI Masato**, FUKUTANI Satoshi***, MORITA Shinji****, MORISAWA Shinsuke*****
*Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Iwate University
**Dept. of Civil Engineering and Environmental Design, Daido Institute of Technology
***Rsearch Reactor Institute, Kyoto University
**** Sewerage Bureau, City of Osaka
*****Dept. of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University
[SATTA Naoya] satta@iwate-u.ac.jp
[HORIUCHI Masato] horiuchi@daido-it.ac.jp
To evaluate the dynamic behavior and health risk of Antimony(Sb) in water-air-soil-plant systems, Sb concentrations in surface soil and soil pore solutions around a smelter were determined. Through a field survey, competing substances in the pore-water solution were also analyzed, and basic elution experiments with different kinds of competing substance were performed in the laboratory. The soil samples were collected from agricultural land and their pore-water solution had high nutrient concentrations.
Sb concentration in pore water became higher with increased total Sb in soil, and with both decreasing pH and increasing pH. This indicates that Sb is an amphoteric compound in soil solutions. Non-linear correlation coefficients between the Sb concentration and co-existing substances were examined. Negative correlations were found for the major nutrient ions (NO3-,SO42-,Mg,Ca) and pH, which were considered competing substances for Sb elution. From the elution tests, Ca(OH)2 strongly decreased Sb concentration in supernatants, and prevented dissolution of Sb. It was found that adding Ca(OH)2 to surface soil is a promising method for mitigation.


Tsuyoshi Imai*, Y. Y. Liu*, Masao Ukita*, Masahiko Sekine* and Takaya Higuchi*
* Department of Civil and Environmental Eng., Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi University
[Tsuyoshi IMAI] imai@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp
Long-term fertilizer application may result in nutrient deficiency in farmland. Nutrient deficiency and improper human diet have been known as two causes of malnutrition in human body. The objective of this study is to examine the farmland application of compost in its effectiveness of recycling minerals. Mineral distributions in compost and amended soils have been observed. Results show that composts derived from sewage sludge and livestock excreta are, to different extents, rich in various minerals. Their applications are benefit for recycling minerals and making up nutrient deficiencies in farmland. Heavy metal contamination (such as Copper and Zinc) in soils, caused by the overload of composted sewage sludge and livestock excreta, is also noticeable.

Study of Surveying PAH and PAE in the soil using Super Critical CO2 Extraction / SPME method
SHIMAZAKI Takeshi*, Yasukouchi Ken**, YONEDA Minoru*, MORISAWA Shinsuke*
*:Shinko Pantec Co.Ltd., Japan
**:Urban and Environment Engineering, Faculty of Engineeering, Graduate School, Kyoto University, Japan
[YASUKOUCHI Ken] yasukouchi@risk.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp
For the screening of a large amount of environmental soil samples, it is required to reduce the use of organic solvents and simplify the extraction procedures. Therefore, we established a simple method by extending the supercritical fluid and Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method. The method developed in this study has the sufficient efficiency of the PAH extraction from the soils compared with the procedure established by the Environmental Ministry and the extraction method using subcritical water and SPME. Therefore, this method was applied to the field survey of PAHs and PAE in the soil of Kyoto city in summer season and winter season. Many of the sites were contaminated with DEHP, Fluoranthene and Pyrene in both seasons. The seasonal change was not observed in the PAHs distributions in the Kyoto city.

Analytical Equation for Desorption Rate from Long Term Tetrachloroethylene Polluted Soils
KOBAYASHI Takeshi* , YAMAGISHI Yoshiki** , KAMEYA Takashi* , URANO Kohei***
*:Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University
**:Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University
***:Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University
[KOBAYASHI Takeshi] koba@ynu.ac.jp
A practical desorption rate equation for unsaturated soils polluted by volatile chlorinated organic compounds (VCOCs) for a long term was developed for the effective operation of soil vapor extraction systems. The adsorbed amount of VCOCs in long term polluted soil was determined by a new extraction method. For complete extraction, ethanol extraction for 2 days at 50 had to be repeated twice. The desorption rate of VCOCs from soil organic substances was fast, although the desorption rate from soil minerals was slow and a part of VCOCs in soil minerals remained longly. Therefore, it was suggested that desorption rate from soil minerals was limited by internal-diffusion in the soil particles. A desorption rate equation for VCOCs from contaminated soils was developed by considering the desorption from both soil organic matter and soil minerals and the evaporation from soil water. For a sand and a black soil whose characteristics were greatly different, the desorption behavior of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) could be expressed using the proposed desorption rate equation with the same rate parameters.


A numerical simulation of secondary SPM originated from automobiles with random-puff model
Masahiro TAMAI*,Tsuyoshi ARIMITSU**
*:Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University
**:Power Engineering R&D Center, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.
[Masahiro TAMAI] tamai@ga.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp
[Tsuyoshi Arimitsu] K468613@kepco.co.jp
Air pollution is getting serious in urban areas by increase of automobile traffic. A variety of methods to control the traffic have been proposed, but efficiency of the methods has not been examined quantitatively yet. It's important to develop a system to simulate a series of pollution processes from an occurrence of automobile traffic to diffusion and deposition of pollutants. In this study, in order to simulate SPM originated from automobiles, we constructed an integrated model composed of a mesoscale meteorological simulation model (HOTMAC), a random-puff model to calculate transport process of pollutants (RAPTAD), a photochemical reaction model (CBM-IV), SPM generation model proposed by Japan Environmental Agency and an automobile pollutant emission model. We calculated behavior of secondary SPM originated from automobiles in Osaka Prefectural area under various meteorological conditions to examine validity of the simulation model.

Generation of Ammonia gas from three-way catalyst equipped vehicles and the effect of exhausted NH3 and NOx to rainfall in the Tanigawa mountain region
Toru AOI*, Kunihiro MORI**, Masayoshi IKEDA***
*Department of Civil Eng., Gunma National College of Tech.
***Nishihara Techno Service Co.Ltd.
On load measurement test of NH3 gas generation from three-way catalyst equipped vehicles was carried out with pure water absorption method. The result showed that NH3 gas was exhausted considerable degree from any catalyst equipped vehicles. NH3 emissions showed a strong increase with aggressive driving conditions.
The Kan-etsu highway tunnel that is the longest in Japan run through Tanigawa-dake mountain area with two large exhaust and intake air holes. 4 rainwater station were equipped around the air holes and on summit and foot area. From July to October in 2002, all rain water samples were recovered and analyzed NH3 and NOx. The concentration of InorgN showed very high value on the station near the ventilation holes, and very low value at the station apart from the holes. It was made clear that the exhaust vehicle gas strongly affect the nitrogen concentration in rain water.

Calculation for the Proportion of Complex Traffic Vibration Sources
Norio Tokunaga*, Yasuo Hino**, Takashi Nishimura***
*: Osaka Media Port Corporation, JAPAN
**: Infrastructure Planninng & Transportation Engineering, Graduate school of engineering, Osaka City University, JAPAN
***: Osaka City University, JAPAN
[Norio Tokunaga ] no-tokunaga@po.omp.co.jp
Along urban expressways where an elevated road is adopted frequently, large-scale surface streets are often constructed from viewpoint of accessibility. Therefore, a traffic vibration problem is often caused in such a place. Although the sources of vibration must first be identified for each administrative district, applicable methods are yet to be introduced. This study focuses on the correlation between time-based variance of mean vibration energy levels and time-based variance of traffic conditions on each road. And using multiple regression analysis based on statistical processes proposes an objective method for identifying roads that are the source of problems. This method enables macroscopic identification of sources of the traffic vibration problems in a specific region. This method also enables rapidly, relevant countermeasures against the vibration problems, in that it prioritizes such measures through a calculation for the sources' proportion to an overall vibration level.