iEnvironmental Engineering Researchj
Vol.42 (2005)


Emission and dispersion of PAHs on atmospheric and aquatic environment
OZAKI Noriatsu*, TANAIKE Makoto**, KOJIMA Keisuke*, KINDAICHI Tomonori* and FUKUSHIMA Takehiko***
*Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima Univ.
**Obayashi Co., Ltd.
***Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba
The atmospheric concentration, dry and wet deposition, sediment concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in Hiroshima bay area. The concentration patterns were characterized for different sites, and from the measurements, the source apportionment of PAHs was discussed using the chemical mass balance analysis for a fingerprint analysis. For atmospheric PAHs associated with particulate maters (PM), major part of fine PM was estimated to be from gasoline exhausts, and for coarse PM, major part was from diesel exhausts. Sea sediment samples were estimated from mainly from the rain deposition. From the analyses, the source and fates of PAHs in atmospheric and aquatic environments were summarized.

Temporal Variation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Bound to Fine Particles in Different Sites in Tokyo
HOSHIKO Tomomi*, YAMAMOTO Kazuo**, FUKUSHI Kensuke**
*Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Japan
**Environmental Science Center, The University of Tokyo, Japan
[HOSHIKO Tomomi] hoshiko@env.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp
[YAMAMOTO Kazuo] yamamoto@esc.u-tokyo.ac.jp
[FUKUSHI Kensuke] fukushi@esc.u-tokyo.ac.jp
Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to fine particles were measured in different sites in Tokyo, in December 2001 and January 2002. Daily variations of PAH concentrations were observed, with the concentration peaks in the morning and the evening. The concentration variation patterns varied with the sites possibly due to the difference of traffic patterns, configurations around the sites and other sources. PAH concentration variations had clear periodicities of 0.5 and 1 day both in the two periods. The periodicities of 2.3 days and in the first period and 1.2-1.8 days in the second period were peculiar to the each period. The time lags of PAH concentration variations between the sites were detected. It was indicated that the time lags were caused by PAH transportation by wind between the sites and different traffic patterns of the sites.

Degradation of PAHs and Dioxins in Contaminated Soil by Indirect Thermal Desorption Method
Shogo TANIGUCHI*, Hiroaki OZAKI**, Ryo KOIZUMI***, Naoya OKUDA***
* Research and Development Center for New Industry, Osaka Sangyo University
** Department of Civil Engineering, Osaka Sangyo University
*** Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Sangyo University
[Shogo TANIGUCHI] taniguch@cnt.osaka-sandai.ac.jp
Pollution of the soil environment by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins has become a subject of concern these days. Indirect thermal desorption method has been one of the effective remediation techniques for soils contaminated with several hazardous organic substances. This method could be effective for treating PAHs and dioxins contaminated soils also. The objective of this paper is to elucidate on degradation characteristics of PAHs and dioxins in contaminated soils using indirect thermal desorption method. The contaminated soil was heated in a quartz tube from 200oC to 600oC. The exhaust gas was analyzed for evaporated pollutants while the soil after heating was analyzed for the remaining pollutants. Most of the PAHs were removed from the soil when heated over 200oC. The PAHs with low boiling points evaporated easily while those with high boiling points remained in the soil on heating. The remaining PAHs in the soil most probably degraded to PAHs with low boiling points including other compounds on continued heating and subsequently evaporated. Most of the dioxins in the contaminated soil degraded when heated over 400oC. The traces of metals found in the contaminated soil presumably played as catalyst resulting in dioxin degradation at relatively low temperatures in this case. The results indicated that dechlorination was not a major process in dioxin degradation by this method.

Removal Potential of Atmospheric Benzene and Toluene by Urban Greens
Kiyo HASEGAWA*, Takashi NAMIKI**, Toshiya ARAMAKI***, Keisuke HANAKI*
* Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
**Pacific Consultants Co. LTD.
***Asian Institute of Technology
[Kiyo HASEGAWA] kiyo@env.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp
Removing potential of benzene and toluene from atmosphere by urban green was investigated using glass vials and a chamber. Soil itself can remove the gases by adsorption and degradation effects. When soil was autoclaved, the initial adsorption effect was maintained, but the degradation ability diminished. It suggested that initially adsorbed gases were degraded in the soil biologically. The water content and the soil texture influenced on the initial adsorption, however they did not much affect degradation phase. When plants were added, the degradation rate was increased. It can be considered that the existence of plants stimulate the microbial activity in the soil.

Effects of particle size on risk evaluation of direct soil intake for children at playgrounds
YONEDA Minoru*, TSUJI Takashi**, BANNAI Osamu***, MORISAWA Shinsuke*
* Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University, Japan)
**Central Japan International Airport Co., Ltd., Japan
***National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan
[YONEDA Minoru]yoneda@risk.env.Kyoto-u.ac.jp
Quantity of heavy metals in soil is measured after 2mm sieving in Japan for risk evaluation of direct intake of soil. However, 2mm sieving may be unsuitable for the purpose, if soil size taken in by human body is usually much smaller than 2mm. We investigated the relationship between the size of soil particle and quantity of heavy metals in soil, particle size distribution attached to human hands, and evaluated the risks of direct intake of soil considering the particle size taken in human body. The results showed that smaller particles had tendency to contain more heavy metals than bigger ones did, that particle size of about 90% of soil particles attached to human hands at playgrounds were less than 100m, and that 2mm sieving for preparation of heavy metal content measurement caused underestimation of the risk of direct soil intake. For accurate risk evaluation, particle size distribution of soil taken by human body and more detail scenarios of intake of soil are thought to be necessary.

High rate treatment of low strength wastewater by an EGSB reactor
KAWASAKI Tatsuya*, **, OHASHI Akiyoshi*, HARADA Hideki*, SYUTSUBO Kazuaki**
*Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, JAPAN
**Water and Soil Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, JAPAN
[KAWASAKI Tatsuya] kawasaki.tatsuya@nies.go.jp
[SYUTSUBO Kazuaki] stubo@nies.go.jp
In this study, an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, inoculated with mesophilic granular sludge, was applied to the treatment of low strength wastewater (0.6-0.8 gCOD/L) in order to investigate the process reliability. The EGSB reactor was operated at 20C for over 200 days. The upflow velocity of wastewater in the reactor was set at 5 m/h by the recirculation of effluent. The EGSB reactor achieved 12 kgCOD/m3/day with HRT of 1.5 hr at the day 76. After that, process performance was well maintained for over 140 days. At the COD loading of 12 kgCOD/m3/day, the COD removal and the total methane conversion were 60-70% and 40-50% respectively. The settleability of retained sludge slightly deteriorated during first 70 days. However, after that, sludge settleability was improved due to the reconstruction of granular sludge. As a result, sludge concentration was maintained around 45-50 gVSS/L throughout the experiment. Low temperature operation caused a drastic increase of 20C activity of the retained sludge. As compared with the activity of seed sludge, acetate-fed methanogenic activity increased upto 35 times at 20C (0.5 gCOD/gVSS/day) and 16 times at 35_C (1.8 gCOD/gVSS/day) on day 254.

Process performance of a pilot-scale sewage treatment system by combining of UASB and DHS reactor enhancing a sulfur-redox cycle action
TAKAHASHI Masanobu*, KURAMOTO Yoshiharu*, YAMAGUCHI Takashi*/**, SHIMOZAKI Satoshi***, NAGANO Akihiro****, SUMINO Haruhiko+, ARAKI Nobuo++, YAMAZAKI Shinichi +++, NISHIO Naomichi++++
*Hiroshima Prefectural Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, JAPAN, **Department of Civil Engineering, Kure National College of Technology, JAPAN, ***Chemical & Environmental Machinery Division, Kotobuki Industries Company, Ltd., JAPAN, ****Environment Systems Administration Division, Sanki Engineering Company, Ltd., JAPAN, +Department of Civil Engineering, Gifu National College of Technology, JAPAN, ++Department of Civil Engineering, Nagaoka National College of Technology, JAPAN, +++Department of Civil Engineering, Kochi National College of Technology, JAPAN, ++++Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, JAPAN
[TAKAHASHI Masanobu] masanobu@sankaken.gr.jp
[YAMAGUCHI Takashi] yamaguti@kure-nct.ac.jp
Process performance of a novel wastewater treatment system conducted by sulfur redox cycle action was investigated using a pilot-scale reactor system fed with actual sewage for over 700 days. The reactor system was consisted of a denitrification reactor, an UASB reactor, a DHS (downflow hanging sponge) reactor, and a sand filter with recirculation line. As the results, the total BOD of 140}23 mg/L at influent was reduced desirably to 51}4 mg/L of UASB effluent , and 11}2 mg/L of DHS effluent. The final effluent also showed superior quality with respect to low SS, 13}6 mgSS/L and high nitrogen removal efficiency, 58}7 % at recirculation ratio 2. Only 2-3% of inlet SS was accumulated in this system during the long operation. Ratio of sulfate-reducing activity to methane-producing activity was enhanced up to 0.82 (acetate) or 2.6 (hydrogen) in winter season. It was revealed that sulfate-reducing bacteria contributed to degrade of organic matter in the UASB reactor even low temperature condition that it would be less than 10 degrees Celsius.

Study of the Effects on Wastewater Treatment by the Addition of Sludge from a Water Purification Plant
Kimiko YAMAZAKI, Akira KOIZUMI, Yasuhiro ARAI, Fumito SUZUKI
Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University
[Kimiko YAMAZAKI]nosu@ecomp.metro-u.ac.jp
This study investigates the effects on wastewater treatment by the addition of sludge from a water purification plant. The wastewater treatment plant, located on Ogasawara Chichi-jima, has been adding water purification sludge to its wastewater since 1998. First, the effects of adding water purification sludge to wastewater were examined by statistical analysis of wastewater treatment plant management data. The effects were further analyzed on-site and the focus of the experiment defined through statistical and analytical findings and the examination of water quality at each level of wastewater treatment. As a result, it was demonstrated that TOC and PO4-P densities in wastewater plant influent and the phosphorus concentrations in treated wastewater were decreased by the addition of water purification sludge. Activated sludge was precipitated easily and there was an improvement in treatment efficiency. Finally, it was shown that the positive effects of the addition of water purification sludge on wastewater treatment continued for 4-5 days after the termination of treatment.

Nitrite Inhibition of Aerobic Phosphate Uptake Alleviated by Denitrifying Activity of Polyphosphate Accumulating Organisms
YOSHIDA Yukihito*, TAKAHASHI Kohei*, SAITO Toshiaki**, TANAKA Kazuhiro**
*Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nihon University, JAPAN
**Department of Civil Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, JAPAN
[YOSHIDA Yukihito] y_yuki9@hotmail.com
[TAKAHASHI Kohei] kh_takahashi@yahoo.co.jp
[SAITO Toshiaki] saito@civil.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp
[TANAKA Kazuhiro] tanaka@civil.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp
In this study, an anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic/aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated with municipal wastewater to treat the nutrients. When nitrite was accumulated, aerobic phosphate uptake activity significantly decreased and in case of hard exposure to nitrite, BPR severely deteriorated. The interesting observation was that the relative anoxic activity of phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) increased after nitrite exposure. Moreover, batch tests of aerobic phosphate uptake in the presence/absence of nitrite indicated that PAOs with the higher relative anoxic activity were less sensitive to nitrite exposure. From these results, we concluded that BPR was sensitive to nitrite exposure, but BPR containing PAOs with the higher relative anoxic activity is possibly more stable against nitrite than BPR containing PAOs with the lower relative anoxic activity. To make clear the mechanism, several batch tests of aerobic phosphate uptake were conducted in the presence/absence of nitrite with OUR measurements.
In the case of PAOs which had less anoxic activity, both oxygen respiration and phosphate uptake were damaged at almost the same level, but in the case of PAOs which had anoxic activity, oxygen respiration was more severely damaged than phosphate uptake. This higher 'apparent' P/O ratio indicates that some of denitrifying PAOs can utilize nitrite under aerobic condition.

Study on the change of groundwater quality distribution in the right side of Katsura river.
SAITOH Takuya* , YONEDA Minoru* , MORISAWA Shinsuke*
* Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University, Japan
[SAITOH Takuya] saito@risk.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp
[YONEDA Minoru] yoneda@risk.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp
Shallow groundwater on the right hand side of Katsura River in Kyoto was investigated 13 years ago. Approximately the same investigation was executed this time and the results were compared to the previous one. The results of comparison showed that the concentrations of chloride ion and anionic surfactant decreased and quality of shallow groundwater in this area was improved especially in terms of pollution caused by infiltration of municipal waste water. The reason of this phenomena seemed to have a direct relation to the rise of percentage of sewered area. However, the area where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was low and that of Mn was high were not shrunk. This means that groundwater deterioration caused by the recharge of low DO water on the right side of Katsura river was not improved. The improvement of the quantity of shallow groundwater was also observed at a continuous monitoring point of Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport in this area. Sewerage infrastructure is thought to be effective not only for surface water but also for shallow subsurface water. The improvement of the quality of the recharge source of groundwater is also thought to be important for the improvement of groundwater quality.

Evaluation for the behavior of LNAPL released in vadose zone as source of groundwater contamination
Dejun Song*, Mitsuru Kitamura** and Arata Katayama***
*Kiso-jiban Consultants Co.,Ltd. Tokyo, Japan **Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
***EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University,Nagoya,Japan
[SONG Dejun] song.dejun@kiso.co.jp
[KITAMURA Mitsuru] h045112m@mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp
[KATAYAMA Arata] a-katayama@esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp
The behavior of light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) was investigated in an unsaturated subsurface soil of a field lysimeter under natural precipitation condition based on monitoring and simulation with a two-dimensional numerical model, to evaluate the potential as source of groundwater contamination. The monitoring suggested a great enhancement of the microbial degradation of LNAPL in the soil after 90 days from the LNAPL contamination. The model was verified by comparison with the monitoring data of LNAPL residues after 14 and 28 days when the microbial degradation was not pronounced. By assuming that the biodegradation occurred in both water and LNAPL phase in the contaminated soil, the verified model gave the simulation result with reasonable agreement with the field monitoring data. The results suggested that evaluation of the behavior of LNAPL as source of groundwater contamination needed the appropriate estimation of the biodegradation in the LNAPL phase in source zone.

Study on integration of hydrological information using distributed river water simulation model
*Energy and Environmental System Engineering, Graduate School of Fukuoka University, JAPAN
[YAMASHITA Mitsuo] td045506@cis.fukuoka-u.ac.jp
[ICHIKAWA Arata] ichileau@cis.fukuoka-u.ac.jp
Distributed rainfall-runoff model has been an important tool for sharing of information about water. This model consists of the river water simulation model for main river channel and the rainfall-runoff model for sub-basins. As for river water simulation model, the commercial simulation model with the progress in hydraulic calculation has been developed and widely been used in Europe and the United States. For the description of the rainfall-runoff phenomena of sub-basins, there are four problems; namely the size of sub-basins, provision of rainfall data for every sub-basin, selection and/or development of rainfall-runoff model for sub-basins, and identification of parameters for rainfall-runoff model. The authors proposed several countermeasures to above problems for the forested area and pointed out important points for further investigations in this paper.

Development of an Integrated Model on Water Quantity and Quality, and Prediction of Available Water in the Weihe Basin
Osamu HIGASHI*C Tetsuya KUSUDA**C Xiaochang WANG***C Dawen YANG****CShinpei OZAKI*****C Keisuke BABA******C Katsufumi SHIBATA*******
*Japan Science and Technology Agency
**Dept. of Urban Environmental Engineering, Kyushu University
***School of Environmental & Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture & Technology
****Dept. of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University
*****Fukuoka City
******Nippon Jogesuido Sekkei Co., Ltd.
*******Dept. of Urban Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Graduate School, Kyushu University
Many types of meteorological, hydrological and water quality models have been used to simulate water resources distributions, water supply/demand, pollutant fluxes, and water quality in river basins. These models are known to be useful to estimate water budgets and water quality, however, there is no study that tried to integrate these models to propose a comprehensive water resources management system and predict water budgets in future. Therefore, in this study, first, an integrated model on water quantity and quality which involves sectorial water use, is developed. Water balance, pollutant fluxes and water quality in the Weihe basin, are estimated by this model. Secondly, a stochastic meteorological model which can evaluate future rainfall and evapotranspiration, is developed. Future available water in the Weihe basin is predicted by these models. In conclusion, observation data, such as river discharge, water quality and groundwater level, is simulated well using an integrated model on water quantity and quality. Furthermore, the available water in a drought season in 2050, is estimated about 39 billion tons. This value is less than the water demand in the Weihe basin, so it is urgent need to introduce saving-water systems in this region, unless the agricultural sector is shrunken.

Pollutant fluxes and the efficiency of water conservation measures in the Zaohe basin, Xi'an
HEMMI Mitsuru*, KUSUDA Tetsuya**, WANG Xiaochang***, HIGASHI Osamu****, BABA Keisuke*****
*Department of Urban Environment Engineering, Graduate School, Kyushu UniversityAJAPAN
**Department of Urban Environment Engineering, Graduate School, Kyushu UniversityAJAPAN
*** School of Environmental & Municipal Engineering Xi'an University of Architecture & TechnologyACHINA
**** Japan Science and Technology Agency, *****Nippon Jogesuido Sekkei Co., Ltd.
[HEMMI Mitsuru] urbenv2@civil.kyushu-u.ac.jp
[KUSUDA Tetsuya] kusuda@civil.kyushu-u.ac.jp
The Zaohe(The Zao River), located in west of the central Xi'an, works as a drainage. About 80% of untreated domestic and industrial wastewater flows into the river directly, so that BOD5 is always around 200 mg/l and the river has off-flavor. These problems have harmful effects on ecosystems, and are regarded as a disincentive to economic growth. In this study, firstly, a tank model, applicable to analyze hydrological circulation in semiarid climate, is developed. Secondly, a water quantity and quality integrated model, composed of the conventional tank model and kinematic wave model and the 1-D advection-dispersion equation is established. Thirdly, water quality on BOD, SS, DO and NH4+-N in the Zaohe is simulated with this model. In calculation, not only natural water budget such as precipitation and evapotranspiration but sectorial water use are included. Finally, the efficiency of water conservation measures is investigated by using this model. In conclusion, the simulation results have a high correlation with the observed data on water quality. BOD5 concentration and groundwater level-down in the Zaohe basin are improved drastically with introduction of bio toilet and water reuse andrecycle system, and increase in wastewater treatment.

Research on analysis of water quality change of combined sewer overflow(CSO)and the CSO control for pollution load from CSO in Nagaoka City
Tomofumi TANNO*, Keisuke OHBASAWA**, Shoichi FUJITA***, Toshiya KOMATSU*** and Shuji HIMENO***
*@**Master Course Student of Civil and Environ. Eng., Nagaoka Univ. of Tech.
***Dept. of Civil and Environ. Eng., Nagaoka Univ. of Tech.
[OHBASAWA Keisuke] ohbasawa@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp
[FUJITA Shoichi] sfujita@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp
[KOMATSU Toshiya] koma@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp
[HIMENO Shuji] himeno@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp
The Japanese government decided to improve the combined sewer system through a national policy. Municipalities with combined sewer overflowiCSOjproblems embarked on full programs for these improvement works. We newly developed an automatic sampling system that gathers water at the same time the overflow starts. Several countermeasures for the CSO control have been proposed and evaluated through observations and analysis in the city. Furthermore, we have been continuously observing the water quality of CSO. Therefore, we clarified quantitatively the phenomenon of the first flush and rain water dilution that had not been clear. As a result, it turned out that the pollution load to the river by CSO became more than the amount of a total discharge from the sewage plant in Nagaoka City during fine weather. As for CSO control measures, it has been calculated that a storm water storage of 5000m3 and other improvement measures are the most preferable. These techniques are available for general use and can be applied in many cities around the world.

Quantity and Biodegradability of Dissolved Organic Carbon from paddy fields during rainfall and agricultural events
Sooyong SHIM*CTakanori MASUDA**, Yoshihiko HOSOI**CSeunghwan SA***
* Chuncheon-City, KOREA
** Dept. of@Social Systems Eng., Tottori University, JAPAN
*** Policy Research Division, Korea Environment Institute, KOREA
[Takanori MASUDA] masuda@sse.tottori-u.ac.jp
The aim of this study is to quantify and characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in effluents (i.e. surface and drain flow) from a paddy field. Water samplings were taken from four paddy fields in Tottori, Japan, during rainfall and agricultural events between April and September 2003, including irrigation and non-irrigation periods, and then DOC concentration was measured. DOC concentration after 50 days incubation was also measured to determine biodegradability. In addition, EMCs (Event Mean Concentration) and Tank model were applied to quantify DOC loadings from the paddy fields. As a result, DOC concentrations of surface flow were between 1.1 and 10.1 mgC/l. The highest concentration was seen in the beginning of rainfall-runoff in non-irrigation period in April. However, the variation of DOC concentration did not always correspond to rainfall. It seems that it varied depending on agricultural event, i.e. decreasing DOC concentration was found during irrigation period. As a result of calculation by Tank model and EMC, the yearly DOC loading and non-biodegradable DOC from a paddy field were estimated 190-296 kg/ha/year and 153-241kg/ha/year, respectively. More than 80 % of the total DOC was non-biodegradable. Especially, the large amount of non-biodegradable DOC was discharged from Shirokaki event in May and from drain in non-irrigation period.

Equilibrium Model for Humic Iron Complex in Estuary
Manabu FUJII*, Tatsuo OMURA*
*Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University
Iron complexed by humic substance (HS) is one of the most essential metals for the growth of aquatic organisms in estuary. In this study, we investigated the equilibrium behavior of humic iron complex with mathematical model. The equilibrium model was developed on the basis of Debye-Huckel theory, which can take account of the potential energy of iron around the surface of HS. The dissociation of iron from HS in estuarine water was described as results of the competition with divalent cations (Mg2+, Ca2+) and the decrease of surface potential of HS with increase of ionic strength. In this model, adsorption sites on HS were divided into two classes depending on the affinity with iron. This classification resulted in the good agreement with the experimental data in artificial estuarine water. Furthermore, the experimental data in NaCl solution was also well explained by using the calculated intrinsic equilibrium constant. The calculated equilibrium constant between adsorption sites and iron exhibited similar value with reported equilibrium constants. In conclusions, developed model could theoretically describe the equilibrium behavior of humic iron complex with the variation of salinity in estuary.

Growth and phenology of Chamaecyparis obtusa grown under the warmer condition
Naomi YOSHIDA*, Atsushi NAKASHIMA**, Masanori YAMAMOTO*,Hisanori OKUDA***, Tatsuya KUSHIDA****
*Graduate School of Systems Engineering Wakayama University
**Faculty of Systems Engineering Wakayama University
***RECREATION AND TOURISM BUREAU GREENERY Promotion Division Parks Construction Department
****National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology Computational Biology Research Center [Naomi YOSHIDA] s064060@sys.wakayama-u.ac.jp
We investigated the growth and the phenology in Chamaecyparis obtusa two-year-old seedlings grown under several controlled temperature conditions of the outdoor temperature altered by }0.0, +1.0, +2.0 and +3.0. The results showed that growth period were longer under the warmer conditions, because initiation of elongation were earlier and end of growth were later. There were a greater length of main shoot elongation and diameter of main shoot under +2.0 and +3.0 treatments, with a higher ratio of main shoot elongation and H/D ratio, and longer length of branch gaps. Length of lateral branches were longer under the warmer conditions. Thus, length of main shoot elongation and diameter of main shoot were greater under +2.0 and +3.0 treatments, but dry weight and T/R ratio remained almost the same. It was thought that the growth and the phenology of Chamaecyparis obtusa should change under the warmer conditions.

Enhanced emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from a nitrogen-saturated watershed
Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Toyama Prefectural University
Many streams of Kureha Hill, Toyama, Japan, are believed to suffer from nitrogen saturation because of their extremely high concentration of nitrate. The enhanced nitrification by nitrogen saturation would accelerate an emission of N2O to the atmosphere. We measured the N2O flux to the atmosphere both from a nitrogen-saturated forest floor and from a non-nitrogen-saturated forest floor in order to determine the effect of nitrogen saturation on the emission of N2O. As a representative of a nitrogen-saturated stream, Hyakumakidani was selected because it contains a high concentration of nitrate as 164mol/l. Sannokuma Stream on Imizu Hill, adjacent to Kureha Hill, was selected as a non-nitrogen-saturated stream because it contains no more than 9mol/l of nitrate. Both forested watersheds are covered mainly by hardwood. Their vegetation, soil types, and nitrogen deposition are similar. The average N2O flux from the nitrogen-saturated watershed, Hyakumakidani, was 2.42 _g-N/m2/h from October 2004 to May 2005, while it was only 0.21 _g-N/m2/h from the non-nitrogen-saturated watershed. This result clearly shows that nitrogen saturation could accelerate N2O emission to the atmosphere.

LCA for the Sludge Disposal and Beneficial Use of Biogas in Nagaoka City
YASUI Hidenari*, KOMATSU Kazuya*, MATSUHASHI Ryuji**, OHASHI Akiyoshi***, HARADA Hideki***
* Kurita Water Industries, 3-4-7, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan, 160-8383
** Institute of Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan, 113-8656
*** Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka city, Niigata, Japan, 940-2188
* [YASUI Hidenari] hidenari.yasui@kurita.co.jp
** [MATSUHASHI Ryuji] matu@globalenv.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp
*** [HARADA Hideki] ecohara@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp
Process schemes of municipal sludge treatment to reduce greenhouse gas emission in Nagaoka city were evaluated by conducting pilot-scale experiments and review of annual operational reports. (1) High-concentrated anaerobic digestion process with partial ozonation on digested sludge to improve biological degradability, (2) high-concentrated anaerobic digestion process without ozonation, and (3) conventional anaerobic digestion process, were compared its energy consumption and the amount of dewatered sludge cake to incorporate CO2 emission equivalent in the subsequent incineration processes. For beneficial use of biogas, an application of power generation and recovery as alternative natural gas for local sectors were assessed using Input-Output Model with dynamic LCA procedure. It appeared that the scheme of the partial ozonation process with power production gave minimal CO2 emission equivalent because the produced energy was expected to cover all of the energy demand for the plant operation and the production of dewatered sludge cake from the process was only 40% of that from the conventional, which minimizes the hauling and the needs of fuel at the incineration process. The scheme of the partial ozonation process with alternative natural gas was ranked second to contribute the reduction of CO2 emission equivalent.

DEA Efficiency Analysis of Water Works
Atsushi KOIKE*, Kenji HIRAI** and Yoshihiko HOSOI***
*Department of social systems engineering, Tottori University, JAPAN
Prior to the reformulation of regulation, efficiency analysis was only evaluated from the public perspective. Recently, the newly introduced regulation in the public sectors provides cost reduction and more efficiency management. As a result, the efficiency of public sector management should be evaluated from the economic point of view also. In this paper, we employ Data Envelopment Analysis: DEA to evaluate the few kinds of efficiency indicator of water works, which is owned by local government. DEA is one of the best tools to evaluate the performance of certain kinds of sectors using only the input and output data. In addition, DEA provides various useful measurements depending on the purpose of the study. We will introduce the methodology of how to use DEA in evaluating the public sector management.

A Study on Sensitivity Analysis of Pipe Renewal Investment Using Genetic Algorithm
Osamu ODANAGI*, Akira KOIZUMI**, Toyono INAKAZU**, Tadaichi FURUKAWA***, Haruhiko WATANABE*
* Environmental Eng. Dep., Nihon Suido Consultants Co., Ltd.
** Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University
***Graduate School of Engineering , Tokyo Metropolitan University
[Osamu ODANAGI] odanagi_o@nissuicon.co.jp
[Akira KOIZUMI] akoiz@ecomp.metro-u.ac.jp
[Haruhiko WATANABE] watanabe_h@nissuicon.co.jp
In order to update planning process of appropriate renewal scheduling in water supply distribution networks, it is necessary to expand the simulation model for non-linear problems, and to clarify validity of investment. In this paper, we propose a methodology applying Genetic Algorithm (GA) model that is said to have flexible correspondence in the multiple peak solution space. Next, we present indices that show levels of water supply service, and propose the sensitivity analysis methodology using the GA model how the level varies from investment cost restriction.

Roles and Effects of In-vehicle Terminal for Proper Construction Waste Disposal
MATSUDA Shintaro*, ICHIKAWA Arata*, SUZUKI Shinya**
*Guraduate School of Engineering, Fukuoka University, JAPAN
**Department of Civil Engineering, Fukuoka University, JAPAN
[MATSUDA SHINTARO] td035502@cis.fukuoka-u.ac.jp
[ICHIKAWA Arata] ichileau@cis.fukuoka-u.ac.jp
Recently, the abatement of illegal dumping and improper disposal of construction solid wastes have been serious issues in Japan. Although, for the thorough construction waste control, the electronic manifest system has been introduced all of industrial wastes since 1998, the problem is not solved yet. It is considered one of the causes that the final recipient of wastes seldom checks the contents of wastes received from transporter in the present system. This paper describes the important points for the proper management of solid wastes from a construction work, and presents an in-vehicle terminal, named "Dump Catcher", by using Information Technology. The "Dump Catcher" tightly connects with CWMS: construction waste management system and achieved the proper construction waste management.

Examination of Actual Conditions of Street Refuse and its Material and Chemical Composition Analysis
ARAI Yasuhiro*, KOIZUMI Akira*, IWAMOTO Takahiro*
*Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan
[ARAI Yasuhiro] y-arai@ecomp.metro-u.ac.jp
The major constituents of street refuse have been dust and fallen leaves. The recent main constituent is litter that comprises a variety of materials discarded in public places. Litter includes newspapers, empty cans, plastic bags, cigarette ends and so on. Detailed knowledge of the material composition of street refuse is a prerequisite for effective management and disposal. Furthermore, the chemical composition is also important, since it determine the majority of the emissions from waste treatment process. The purpose of this research is to examine the actual conditions of street refuse, and analyze the material and chemical compositions of the refuse. We conducted a continuous actual survey to collect the data. It is revealed that the street refuse has its unique characteristics as compared with municipal solid waste. The result of our analysis helps to establish a new management and disposal system of street refuse.

Influence of clogging on transmissivity of geosynthetic drainage material adopted for landfill leachate collection system
Yasumasa TOJO*, Nobutoshi TANAKA*, Toshihiko MATSUTO*, and Takayuki MATSUO*
*Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University
[Yasumasa TOJO] tojo@eng.hokudai.ac.jp
Drainage of leachate is important in order to prevent leachate storage, which causes leakage risk, and to avoid the circumstance of the landfill bottom turning to the anaerobic condition. However, care must be needed when designing and constructing drainage system at landfill, because drainage material inevitably contacts biologically and chemically active leachate, which triggers clogging of drainage material. Especially in Japan, recent leachate contains salts at relatively high concentration. Such leachate quality accelerates formation of calcium carbonate. In this study, the influence of clogging on the transmissivity of geosynthetics drainage material was investigated by conducting various flow experiments. As consequences, the following results were obtained: (1) All geosynthetic material tested in this study indicated high trapping efficiency of suspended solid. And it resulted in decrease of hydraulic conductivity of them. (2) Raw leachate causes the decrease of hydraulic conductivity more severely than the physical clogging effect. And degree of the transmissivity loss was much when leachate of high pH or leachate from incineration ash was used. (3) Results of numerical simulation showed that some geosynthetic materials lose transmissivity completely within a year if it was adopted for leachate drainage system.

Rationalization of the impoundment of pyrite-bearing muck: Column experiments on dissolution of minerals from rock containing pyrite and calcite
NAGASAWA Shunsuke*, IGARASHI Toshifumi*, ASAKURA Kuniomi*, KIMURA Hirotoshi**
*Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, JAPAN
**Japan Railway Construction, Transport and Technology Agency, Morioka Bureau, JAPAN
[NAGASAWA Shunsuke] nagasawa@trans-er.eng.hokudai.ac.jp
[IGARASHI Toshifumi] tosifumi@eng.hokudai.ac.jp
Acid leachate from pyrite-bearing rocks in an oxic condition causes the deterioration of the surrounding environment. Calcite-bearing rocks may neutralize the acid effluent by dissolving calcite. Therefore, column leaching experiments were carried out to clarify the most effective structure of land reclamation consisting of both pyrite-bearing rock and calcite-bearing rock. Andesite containing pyrite and basalt containing calcite were used for the experiments. The results showed that the pH of the leachate ranged from neutral to weak alkaline for the case that andesite was packed at the inflow side and the case that completely mixed rock sample was packed uniformly. However, the pH at the beginning of the experiments was acidic in the case that andesite was packed at the outflow side. The concentrations of Ca and SO42- were higher at beginning of the experiments and decreased with time for all cases. The concentrations of Ca and SO42- were restricted for the acid effluent case by the formation of gypsum in the andesite layer. This indicates that the formation of gypsum should be inhibited to maximize the neutralization capacity by calcite dissolution.

Evaluation of xenoestrogens in sewage treatment facilities by the estrogen recepter binding assay
KANJO Yoshinori*, KAKAGAWA Naoki*
*Graduate school of engineering, Osaka City University, JAPAN
[KANJO Yoshinori] kanjo@urban.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp
In this paper, we tried to clarify the fate of xenoestrogens in the sewage treatment facility with the estrogen receptor binding assay. The results were summarized as follows; the equivalent values of xenoestrogens(EVX) to the 17 beta-estradiol of the influent and effluent were 15 to 54g/day and 1.8 to 7.7 g/day, respectively, and the removed ratios in the facility were 86 to 88%.@The EVX removed as the excess sludge was only 5.7 to 10% of the loadings into the aeration tank.@@Therefore, 71 to 92% of the EVX into the aeration tank was degraded biologically or evaporated in the aeration tank.@@The EVX circulated through the activated sludge process as a return sludge were 190 to 650 g/day, and these values were 31 to 170 times as much as the loading from the primary sedimentation tank. @It was expected that most of xenoestrogens in the sewer were antagonist.

Behavior of natural estrogens in high-rate advanced treatment system
Yoshihiro SUZUKI*, Hiroyasu TAIRA**, Toshiroh MARUYAMA*
*Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Miyazaki University
**ATAKA Construction & Engineering Co., Ltd.
The behavior of the highly potential endocrine disrupters 17_-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) was investigated in an air-fluidized-bed biofilm reactor system, which consisted of an oxidation reactor, a nitrification reactor and a denitrification reactor using a polypropylene carrier, for advanced sewage treatment. E2 and E1 concentrations were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The effluent concentrations of total organic carbon and total nitrogen from the denitrification reactor were maintained at 8 mg-C/L and 5 mg-N/L, respectively, under a total hydraulic retention time of 4 hr in the biological process. The removal of nitrogen as advanced sewage treatment was achieved by the system. However, the removal efficiencies of E2 and E1 in the biological process were less than 70% and 40%, respectively. Over three weeks, the average estrogen concentrations in the effluent of the denitrification reactor were 2.6 ng/L for E2 and 28.2 ng/L for E1. Although the system successfully achieved advanced treatment, the removal efficiency of natural estrogens was lower than that for a conventional activated sludge plant. The advanced treatment of municipal sewage must be promoted to improve the aquatic environment, while it is necessary to take into account the fate of estrogens in the process.

Equilibrium Adsorption Capacity of Estrogens onto Activated Carbon
Eunjeong CHEONG*, Akira YUASA**, Fusheng LI***, Yoshihiko MATSUI****
*Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University, JAPAN
**River Basin Research Center, Gifu University, JAPAN
***Department of Civil Engineering, Gifu University, JAPAN
****Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, JAPAN [Eunjeong Cheong]cheingej@green.gifu-u.ac.jp
[Akira Yuasa]yuasa@green.gifu-u.ac.jp
Batch activated carbon adsorption experiments were performed for investigation of the adsorption capacity of estrone, 17-estradiol and estriol using single-solute and mixed-solute solutions. The single-solute isotherm data for all three adsorbates were well described by the Freundlich isotherm expression and the associated adsorption parameters (Freundlich constant K and exponent 1/n) were thus determined. The K values were relatively large, 493.6, 347.8 and 194.4(mg/g)/(mg/L)1/n for E1, E2 and E3, respectively, which indicated strong adsorbabilities. In regard of 1/n, the determined values fell in a range below 0.3 (0.264, 0.227 and 0.197 for E1, E2 and E3, respectively), suggesting strong affinity of these compounds to the activated carbon used (Filtrasorb 400). When subjected to adsorption in mixed solutions with different solute and concentration combinations, the adsorption capacity of all these three compounds decreased obviously, as compared to that in single-solute solutions. However, the order assessed in terms of the magnitude of adsorption capacity was found not changed as it was in single solute solutions, i.e., E1>E2>E3.

Determination of Conjugated-Estrogens in Wastewater by LC/MS/MS
Minekazu SUEOKA*, Kaoru TANABE*, Tohio OHIWA*, Koya KOMORI**, Yutaka SUZUKI**, Hiroaki TANAKA***
*Teijin Eco-Science LTD
**Water Quality Research Team, Public Works@Research Institute
***Research Center for@Environmental Quality Management, Kyoto Univ.
In order to investigate the behaviors of transformation of conjugated estrogens (CEs) to free estrogens [FEs; estrone(E1),17b-estradiol(E2),estriol(E3)] in wastewater, it is necessary to determine not only FEs but also CEs. Previously, we reported a procedure for determination both of FEs and CEs in wastewater by liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). But the recovery ratio of CEs was particularly low for glucuronated estrogens (GEs) (less than 30%). In order to overcome, we improved a pretreatment procedure and a subsequent separation by liquid chromatography (LC). This paper explains an improved analytical method for quantifying CEs in wastewater using LC/MS/MS. After addition of an ion-pair reagent and surrogates (E2-3S-d4 and E2-17G-13C4) to the sample, solid phase extraction (SPE) was performed using Oasis HLB cartridge. Subsequently, the cartridge was washed with ethyl acetate/n-hexane solution and eluted with ethyl acetate/methanol solution containing 0.05% ammonia. After solvent removal, the residue was dissolved in acetonitril/water solution, which was then analyzed by LC/MS/MS. (SRM-negative ions with electro splay ionization). the LC-mobil phase used in the gradient mode was acetonitril/water containing 10 mmolEL-1 formic acid. For quantification the added surrogates served as internal standards (E2-3S-d4 for SEs and E2-17G-13C4 for GEs , respectively). Applying this method, the method detection limit(MDL) of four sulfated estrogens(SEs) ranged from 0.6 to 1.2 ngEL-1 and five GEs ranged from 2.9 to 3.9 ngEL-1. The obtained recovery efficiencies ranged from 80 to 110 % for SEs and 60 to 120 % for GEs, respectively.

Prediction of Occurance of Oxygen-deficient Water Body in the Closed Section of Hakata Bay
*Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, JAPAN
**Mikuniya Corporation, JAPAN
[KUMAGAI Hiroshi] kumagai@fihes.pref.fukuoka.jp
[SUSHIMOTO Kenji] sushimoto@mikuniya.co.jp
In this study, on the basis of survey data, we present the major incidents responsible for the formation of an oxygen-deficient water body in the closed section of Hakata bay. Further, we propose a method to predict the occurrence of the oxygen-deficient water body. Observations with regard to the oxygen-deficient water body in the closed section of Hakata Bay were noted in the summer seasons of both 2001 and 2002. In that area, oxygen deficiency occurred in 2001; moreover, it was not identified in 2002. By comparing these observed data, it was found that the major contributing factors for generating oxygen-deficient water in the summer season are (a) salinity stratification caused by the input of freshwater after rainfall and (b) an increased consumption rate of oxygen due to the degradation of sedimented organic matter of terrestrial and primary production origins. On the basis of these findings, we formulated a prediction relation expressed as a function of the effective accumulated precipitation. Furthermore, the following results were obtained. (1) The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the bottom layer of that area decreased with the effective accumulated precipitation. (2) An oxygen-deficient water body is generated when the effective accumulated precipitation exceeds 150 mm.

The mechanisms of the reverse correlation between nitrate and sulfate concentrations in a forested stream under a nitrogen-saturated condition
Department of Environmental Technology, College of Technology, Toyama Prefectural University, Japan
[KAWAKAMI Tomonori]kawakami@pu-toyama.ac.jp
The Hyakumakidani stream on Kureha Hill in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, is believed to suffer from nitrogen saturation because of its high concentration of nitrate averaged 160 mol/l. In the stream water of Hyakumakidani, the nitrate concentration shows a clear reverse relationship with the sulfate concentration, i.e. with the increase of the discharge rate, the nitrate concentration increases, while the sulfate concentration decreases. This phenomena has been reported in some other studies, however, the mechanism has not been discussed in detail with an experimental basis. In this study, we examined the mechanisms which cause the reverse correlation between nitrate and sulfate concentrations by a soil incubation technique under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The experiment results showed that the biological denitrification within the A and B horizons of the soils on the Hyakumakidani watershed produced the sulfate leading to the reverse relationship between both the ions.

Field surveys on suspended matters transport andvariations of water qulity on an intertidal mudflat in the gulf of Ariake Sea using an automatic profiler sensor
YAMANISHI Hiroyuki*C ARAKI Hiroyuki*CKOGA Yasuyuki**C HIMURA Kenichi** and OHISHI Kyoko***
*Institute of Lowland Technology, Saga University
**Graduate School of Engineering, Saga University
***Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University
[YAMANISHI Hiroyuki] yamanisi@ilt.saga-u.ac.jp
In the Ariake Sea, the tide difference is very great. Therefore, mud erosion under currents and waves affects amount of suspension in water column. In this study, water quality in a tidal flat is measured using an automatic ascending-descending instrument that collects hydraulic data and water quality data at various depths over a long period. Analysis of the data, focusing on suspended solids, reveals the variations and distribution of suspended solids in different tidal periods (spring tides and neap tides). Information regarding the fluctuation in various physical characteristics of tidal flats was successfully extracted from the obtained measurements, as summarized in this paper. Some of the characteristics of sediment transport over mud flats under the variations of water level were also clarified. This research also attempts to consider that the movement of SS and nutrients, and thus their characteristics and the influence of erosion to water quality are investigated. As a result, it can be said that T-N and T-P are much dependent on the behaviors of mud erosion. They contribute a great effect to the water quality, while DIN and DIP may not be affected clearly by the mud erosion in this limited survey.

Transportation characteristic of particulate organic matter between sediment and overlaying water in Gamo tideland
KOFUKU Satoshi*, SAKAMAKI Takashi**, NOMURA Munehiro*, ICHIMURA Yasushi***, KIMURA Kenshi****, NISHIMURA Osamu*
*Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, JAPAN
**Department of Forest Sciences, University of British Columbia, CANADA
***:Mikuniya Corporation, JAPAN
****:School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University, JAPAN
[NOMURA Munehiro] nomu@eco.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
[NISHIMURA Osamu] osamura@eco.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
Field observation has been carried out to evaluate the relationship between sediment and transportation characteristic of organic matter by calculating the organic carbon flux of sediment per day at the different sediment area of Gamo tideland during November, 2003. From the results, the settling of organic matter per day in sand area was confirmed. The filter feeder was considered to effect the settling of particle matter. The settling of organic matter in mud area and the erosion of organic matter in sand-mud area per day were occured. As the result, the balance of organic substance in sand-mud sediment area was decreased. In addition, by using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers(ADCP) for evaluating the transportation characteristic in short time of particle matter, it was found that the erosion was occurred rapidly at the high current velocity of flood tide while the settling was occurred at the low current velocity.

Influence of Antibiotics on the Treatment of Feces in Composting Toilet
Takashi KAKIMOTO*, Teruma OSAWA*, Naoyuki FUNAMIZU*
*Division of Built Environment, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, JAPAN
[Takashi Kakimoto] kakimoto@eng.hokudai.ac.jp
[Naoyuki Funamizu] funamizu@eng.hokudai.ac.jp
In the onsite wastewater differentiable treatment system, human excrements are separated from other domestic wastewater and biologically converted into compost in the composting toilet. In human excrement, especially in urine, not only nutrients (N,P,K) but also pharmaceuticals are present. Some pharmaceuticals, for instance antibiotics, have an adverse effect on biological reactions and may retard bioconversion processes. In this study, the single exposure effect of antibiotics (Amoxicillin) on the biological treatment of human feces was evaluated in terms of oxygen consumption. The result of Oxygen Uptake Rate(OUR) profiles indicated that feces decomposition was delayed, maximum biodegradation rate was declined, and reaction time was lengthened. In comparison with the control, amoxicillin spiked system showed that the amount of remaining feces after one week reaction was proportional to the initial concentration of amoxicillin and no recovery of biological activity was observed within a week. Simulation results implied that the addition of antibiotics decreased not only the active microbial count but also the activity of bacteria in the matrix.

Nitrogen transformation during the aerobic biodegradation of feces
*Graduate School of Engineering Division of Built Environment, Hokkaid University,JAPAN
[SHINYA Hotta] zhenye@eng.hokudai.ac.jp
[TOMOHIRO Noguchi] tomopiro@eng.hokudai.ac.jp
[NAOYUKI Funamizu] funamizu@eng.hokudai.ac.jp
We have been proposing an onsite differentiable wastewater treatment system. In the system, black water is treated by non-flushing composting toilet by using sawdust as matrix, and nutrient in feces and urine is recovered as compost. Previous study showed that most of nitrogen volatized as NH3 gas during composting process. Since most nitrogen is in urine, separating feces by urine diverting toilet bowl and supplying only feces to the composting toilet contribute to improving nitrogen recovery. In this study, we conducted composting experiments using feces and sawdust and observed the fate of nitrogen during composting process. The experimental results showed that 1) the time lag was observed between the peek time of CO2 production rate (CO2PR) and the peek time of ammonium nitrogen volatilization rate (ANVR); 2) composting only feces gave the high nitrogen recovery, i.e. approximately 10% to 20% of nitrogen in supplied feces volatized as an ammonia gas from the system.

Phosphate Extraction and Recovery Process from Pre-coagulated Sludge by Addition of Chemical Compounds
Kazuyuki OSHITA*, Hiroyuki KITAKOJI*, Masaki TAKAOKA*, Fumitaka KATO*,Nobuo TAKEDA*, Tadao MATSUMOTO*, Ryouichi HIMONO*
*Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University
**Osaka Prefecture
As a technique of disposing and recycling a large amount of sludge generated by the pre-coagulation process, which is literally one of the advanced sewage disposal system, we focused on the method of recovering phosphate and coagulant in sludge. Characteristics of extraction and recovery of phosphate were particularly examined in this process, where iron and phosphate were separated by the addition of chemical compounds. Targeting the pre-coagulated sludge with Ferric Chloride, we evaluated these following points; 1) the influence of S/Fe molar ratio and pH on the phosphorus extraction rate, 2) the influence of the amount of added calcium hydroxide on the extracted phosphate recovery rate, and 3) the composition of the material recovered. As a result, when using potassium hydrosulfide in minimum addition amount (S/Fe=1?1.5) as its reducing agent, maximum extraction rate of around 70 % was obtained, which is effectively higher than the result when hydrogen sulfide was used before Moreover, the extracted phosphate recovery rate hit 90% when Ca/P molar ratio was about 1.5. As for the material recovered, 15% of phosphorus was contained with quite low content of heavy metals and Al.

Removal of estrogens and pharmaceuticals by different activated sludge
URASE Taro*, TANAKA Toshiyuki**
*: Dept. Civil Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
**: Nihon Suido Consultants Co.,Ltd, Japan
[URASE Taro] turase@fluid.cv.titech.ac.jp
The removal of two estrogens, two possible endocrine disruptors and ten pharmaceuticals by seven different types of the activated sludge was investigated. The degradation of 17alpha - ethynylestradiol, bisphenol A and benzophenone followed linear adsorption _ first order degradation model in which adsorption and degradation can be evaluated separately. Keeping the sludge in the laboratory for a long time increased the adsorption equilibrium onto the sludge. Among pharmaceuticals, ibuprofen and fenoprofen were degraded rapidly, while clofibric acid, propyphenazone and carbamazepine cannot be degraded by any types of sludge except for the sludge taken at a leachate treatment plant located in a solid waste disposal site. The degradation of diclofenac and indomethacin was also slow and required lag time before following first order degradation kinetics. The degradation of gemfibrozil, ketoprofen and naproxen was dependent on the type of the sludge.

Behaviour of Human Antibiotics in Wastewater Treatment Plants
Makoto YASOJIMA*, Yoshikazu KOBAYASHI**, Norihide NAKADA***, Koya KOMORI***, Yutaka SUZUKI***, Hiroaki TANAKA**
* Towa Kagaku Co., Ltd., JAPAN
** Research Center for Environmental Quality Management, Kyoto Univ., JAPAN
*** Water Environment Research Group, Public Works Research Institute, JAPAN
[Makoto YASOJIMA] antibioti9@ybb.ne.jp
Antibiotics resident in sewage and in the water environment have become an emerging public concern in many developed countries. Also in Japan, studies about their concentrations in the environment and in the discharge from sewage treatment plants have begun to be reported. The objectives of this research were to clarify the behavior in sewage treatment plants about selected human antibiotics, namely levofloxacin (LVFX), clarithromycin (CAM) and azithromycin (AZM). In samples of filtered influents and secondary effluents, average concentrations of LVFX, CAM and AZM were 552, 301ng/L, 647, 359ng/L and 260, 138ng/L, respectively. Removal efficiencies of LVFX, CAM and AZM in sewage treatment plants were 46%, 45% and 47%, respectively. These removal efficiencies and sludge retention time (SRT) in their reactors had some correlation. When the pH dependability of octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) of LVFX, CAM and AZM was examined in this study, clear pH dependability was observed in the range from pH 3 to 9. As a result of batch test of sorption to activated sludge, sorption was suggested to be major removal mechanism for LVFX and AZM. On the other hand, biodegradation was suggested to be major removal mechanism for CAM. Further, behavior of these antibiotics including suspended solid and activated sludge was clarified in a pilot plant. As a result of this survey, one to ten times high concentrations of LVFX, CAM and AZM in activated sludge was detected than water phase, which demonstrated that these antibiotics tend to be sorbed to activated sludge. However, Log Kow alone was not able to explain this adsorption phenomenon. In contrast, Log Kd had a possibility that it could be explained.

Reduction of Female Hormone in Treated Wastewater by Ultraviolet Rays
Naoki MATSUYAMA*CMitsuaki OHTSUKA**CKuniharu YOSHIMOTO*** and Yoshiyuki SUGAWARA****
**Co., Ltd. METEC
***Faculty of Engineering, Toyo University
The female hormone exhausted from the human body has from about 1,000 to 10,000 times stronger estrogens activity than a typical chemical to which the endocrine disrupter's action is suggested. Therefore, the research on effective reduction of the female hormone was conducted with an experimental apparatus by the continuous supply method using only ultraviolet rays because combination of ultraviolet rays with other technologies complicates the management of operation in the sewage plant. The treated wastewater was continuously supplied into the experimental apparatus, ultraviolet ray was radiated, and the reduction effect of E1 and E2 were measured while changing the irradiation time. The result of the experiment reveals the possibility to treat female hormone in the treated wastewater by ultraviolet rays.

A41 Effects of oxidative thermal treatments on the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge
Masanobu TAKASHIMA*, Yoshihito TANAKA**
*Department for the Application of Nuclear Technology, Fukui University of Technology, JAPAN
** Technology Division, Hokukon Ltd., JAPAN
In this study, various oxidative thermal treatments were examined in order to overcome the disadvantages of thermal treatment and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. The temperature and duration of the thermal treatment were fixed at 170 oC and 1 hour respectively. Anaerobically digested sludge was used as the substrate, particularly to see the effects on hardly biodegradable part of sewage sludge. Batch experiments using 120 mL serum bottles were run at 35 oC for 20 days, and then methane production, sludge destruction, dewaterability and color generation were measured. As the strength of oxidants, hydrogen peroxide and ozone, was increased, methane production was decreased, whereas sludge destruction was increased. The dewaterability and color became worst for the thermal treatment with oxygen and Na2CO3. On the other hand, dewaterability was significantly improved and color generation was restricted most for the thermal treatment with oxygen and HCl. The oxidative thermal treatment at acidic pHs appears effective to suppress the color generation by Maillard reactions.

Full-scale verification of modified anaerobic digestion process with ozonation to minimize sludge cake production
KOMATSU Kazuya*, YASUI Hidenari*, LI Yu-you**, NOIKE Tatsuya***
*R&D Division, Kurita Water Industries ltd., JAPAN
**Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, JAPAN
***:Advanced Research Institute for the Sciences and Humanities, Nihon University, JAPAN
[KOMATSU Kazuya] kazuya.komatsu@kurita.co.jp
[YASUI Hidenari] hidenari.yasui@kurita.co.jp
A modified anaerobic digestion process was verified by full-scale experiments (digester volume of 1,125 m3) at a municipal wastewater treatment plant. To improve organic degradation, ozonation and solid-liquid separation of digested sludge were conducted in this process. The ozonation changed the inert organic solids in the digested sludge to biodegradable ones and the ozonated sludge was decomposed biologically in the digester. The solid-liquid separation extended sludge retention time and improved degradation of organic solids. High digestion efficiency of more than 80% was achieved at 5.8-6.1% TS concentration, while 63% at 1.5-1.6% TS concentration of conventional chemostat operation. Biogas production increased over 1.3 times corresponding to improvement of TVS degradation. Improved organic degradation caused more inorganic content of digested sludge. Water content of dewatered sludge cake decreased to less than 70%. Sludge cake production was reduced to 30% of conventional one due to higher digestion efficiency and lower water content. A modified anaerobic digestion process was verified by full-scale experiments (digester volume of 1,125 m3) at a municipal wastewater treatment plant. To improve organic degradation, ozonation and solid-liquid separation of digested sludge were conducted in this process. The ozonation changed the inert organic solids in the digested sludge to biodegradable ones and the ozonated sludge was decomposed biologically in the digester. The solid-liquid separation extended sludge retention time and improved degradation of organic solids. High digestion efficiency of more than 80% was achieved at 5.8-6.1% TS concentration, while 63% at 1.5-1.6% TS concentration of conventional chemostat operation. Biogas production increased over 1.3 times corresponding to improvement of TVS degradation. Improved organic degradation caused more inorganic content of digested sludge. Water content of dewatered sludge cake decreased to less than 70%. Sludge cake production was reduced to 30% of conventional one due to higher digestion efficiency and lower water content.

ASM-based State Variables to Express Hydrolysis Stage of Activated Sludge in the Anaerobic Digestion Process
YASUI Hidenari*, SUGIMOTO Misao*, KOMATSU Kazuya*, GOEL Rajeev*, LI Yu-you**, NOIKE Tatsuya**
* Kurita Water Industries, 3-4-7, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan, 160-8383
** Department of Civil Engineering, Tohoku University, Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan, 980-8579
* [YASUI Hidenari] hidenari.yasui@kurita.co.jp
**[LI Yu-you] yyli@epl1.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
Kinetic modelling of hydrolysis stage of municipal activated sludge, which is presumed to be rate-limiting step in the anaerobic sludge digestion process, was studied by measuring methane production rate (MPR) in anaerobic batch tests. The MPR curves revealed the degradable organic components in municipal sludge could be classified into two fractions having different kinetics. The first fraction (XS1) constituted about 55% of the sludge COD and degraded with first order kinetics. The second fraction (XS2), which degraded during the initial phase, accounted for about 21% of sludge COD. The degradation kinetics for XS2 was expressed by Contois-type equation with respect to concentration of substrate in the fed sludge and that of active biomass in the mixture. Simultaneous batch aerobic respirometric tests showed the activated sludge was composed of 53% heterotrophic biomass (XH-Aerobe) COD and 20% of slowly biodegradable COD (XS), that had same kinetic expressions as observed in the batch anaerobic tests. The observed correlation between substrate fractions suggests XS1 and XS2 could be directly mapped to aerobic state variables of XH-Aerobe and XS respectively. The degradation of XS1 seems to be anaerobic decay of XH-Aerobe while XS2 is thought to be hydrolysis of XS by microcosm of the sludge.

Reduction of Alkalinity Supplement to a Novel High-rate UASB Reactor by a Multi-Feed Mode
Akira TOYAMA*, Wilasinee YOOCHATCHAVAL*, Hiroyuki IMACHI*, Akiyoshi OHASHI*, Hideki HARADA*
*Dept. of Environ. Systems Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology
[Akira TOYAMA] akira_toyama0411@yahoo.co.jp
Alkalinity supplement is in general a major burden to running cost of anaerobic wastewater treatment process of plug flow type reactor like UASB. In order to reduce the cost for alkalinity supplement, a multi-feed mode was proposed, and verified by conducting an experiment of a laboratoryscale multi-staged thermophilic (55_C) UASB by feeding an alcohol (Shochu) distillery wastewater. At a loading rate of 50 kgCOD_m-3_d-1 (corresponding to HRT of 4.8 h for influent strength of 10,000 mgCOD_l-1), the multi-feed mode allowed the 0.01-0.02 gCaCO3/gCOD of alkalinity supplementation with above 70% COD removal, while a process failure due to severe pH drop occurred at 0.09-0.12 gCaCO3/gCOD of alkalinity supplement in single feed mode UASB process. The multi-feed mode successfully made it possible to lessen alkalinity supplement to 1/6 (0.02/0.12) of the single feed mode.

Mitsuhiro Arakane*, Tsuyoshi Imai*, Sadaaki Murakami**, Masami Takeuchi**, Masao Ukita*, Masahiko Sekine* and Takaya Higuchi*
*Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yamaguchi University
**Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Ube National College of Technology
The amount of sewage sludge produced in municipal wastewater treatment plants in Japan is increased as the increasing population every year. Therefore, the introduction of the sludge solubilization is being hastened. In many sludge solubilization processes, subcritical water process has become the center of attention. These characteristics are higher solubilization rate and easier recovery resources. In this study, a subcritical water process was applied as pilot plant installed in a sewage plant of Ube city, Yamaguchi prefecture. In the experiment, the solubilization rate of sewage sludge was achieved more than 90%. Moreover, it was recognized that the organic substrate eluted from sewage sludge by subcritical water process could be degraded to be methane in an UASB reactor. However, its found that performance of UASB treatment (COD removal rate) was approximately 50-65% because activities of granule decreased due to the accumulation of suspended solids and refractory organics in UASB reactor.

The Effects of pH and Nitrogen Concentration on Hydrogen Fermentation from Starch
Yohei AKUTSU*, Yu-you LI*, Tatsuya NOIKE**
*Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University
**Advanced Research Institute for the Science and Humanity, Nihon University
[Yohei AKUTSU] akutsu@epl1.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
[Yu-you LI] yyli@epl1.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
The effects of pH and nitrogen concentration on anaerobic hydrogen fermentation by a mixed microflora were investigated using starch as a sole substrate. Two series of experiments were conducted by using a chemostat-type reactor with a pH controller. The experiment1 was conducted to investigate the effects of pH on the hydrogen fermentation at a nitrogen limited condition by controlling pH to be 4.5, 5.5 and 6.0 respectively. It was revealed that nitrogen limitation at all pHs caused deterioration of bacterial growth and substrate decomposition efficiency. Lactate was significantly produced at pH6.0 under nitrogen limitation. The experiment2 was conducted to clarify the influence of nitrogen concentration on the continuous hydrogen production by changing the nitrogen concentration of the substrate from TAN(Total Ammonia Nitrogen) 30 to 2000mg/L. The hydrogen production was stable with a hydrogen yields of about 1.40~1.53mol H2/mol hexose-converted during a long time continuous operation of over two months at the nitrogen concentration ranging from TAN300 to 2000mg/L. The results of this research indicated that nitrogen has a significant effect on the continuous hydrogen fermentation and that the suitable C/N ratio ranges 3 to 20

Effect of sulfate on the biodegradation of soluble and solid organic matters in thermophilic methanogenic process
Daisuke TANIKAWA*, Takashi YAMAGUCHI**, Makoto ICHITSUBO**, Kazuaki SYUTSUBO***, Akiko MIYA****, Akiyoshi OHASHI*, Hideki HARADA*
*:Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, JAPAN
**:Department of Civil Engineering, Kure National College of Technology, JAPAN
***:Water and Soil Environmental Divison, National Institute for Environmental Studies JAPAN
****Technologies, Research&Development Divison, Ebara Corporation, Japan
[TANIKAWA Daisuke] tanikawa@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp
We operated four thermophilic (55) anaerobic CSTRs under different sulfate levels in the presence of two kinds of carbon sources (starch and shochu) , in order to investigate the effect of sulfate on intermediate production and degradation. These CSTRs were operated at pH 7 and CODcr loading of 1.2 kg/m3/day with HRT of 25-33 days under sulfate-poor (33 mgSO42--S/L) or sulfate-rich (100 mgSO42--S/L) conditions. As the results, in starch-degrading sulfate-poor reactor "S-7", the hydrogen partial pressure rose up to 102-103 Pa. On the other hand, with the starch-degrading sulfate-rich reactor "S-S" and shochu-fed CSTRs, hydrogen partial pressure could be kept lower. In both starch-degrading and shochu-fed reactors, propionate-degrading activities tended to increase at sulfate-rich condition. This contribution of sulfate to propionate degradation, in starch reactors was higher than in shochu reactors. It seems that the addition of sulfate is effective for prevention of hydrogen and propionate accumulation, especially on treatment with the substrate such as starch that can produce high level of hydrogen.

*Master Course Student at Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering,Tohoku University
**Graduate School of Environmental Studies,Tohoku University
***Graduate School of Engineering,Tohoku University.
[Toshiki AIZAWA] aizawa@kaigan.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
[So KAZAMA]kazama@kaigan.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
The study simulated coliform distribution using the hydraulic flood model around Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The distribution was evaluated for the impact on human health investigated the relationship between coliform count and infant mortality rate spatially. The results obtained as follows; The risk of infection is higher in the lower region, depends on the relation among water level, inundation time and population.

Water Utilization and Microbial Contamination of Water Environment in the Mekong Watershed
MIURA Takayuki*, WATANABE Toru*, NAKAMURA Satoshi**, OMURA Tatsuo*
*:Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, JAPAN
**:Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan
[MIURA Takayuki] miura@water.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
Infectious diarrhea related to the polluted water environment, such as cholera and dysentery, is still a severe problem in developing countries. Mekong watershed is one of the regions suffering from outbreaks of waterborne infectious diarrhea. In order to take effective countermeasures against the waterborne infectious diarrhea in Mekong watershed, it is necessary to evaluate the risk of infection based on characteristics of water environment and its utilization. In this study, field surveys were carried out to investigate the water utilization and to analyze the microbial contamination of the water environment in Lao P.D.R, Cambodia and Vietnam. A total of 115 samples were collected from river water, canal water, rain water, well water, bottled water and tap water mainly used as the drinking water. As results, it was found that the samples were frequently contaminated with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. These bacteria were detected even from the drinking water after boiling due to the cross-contamination with unsanitary containers. And what is worse, norovirus was also detected from some samples of drinking water at the concentration high enough to cause the infection.

Irreversible adhesion of virus particles to polyaluminum species generated during coagulation
MATSUSHITA Taku*, KOZUKA Nobuyuki*, NAKATSUKASA Makoto*, TSUNODA Yuki*, MATSUI Yoshihiko**
*Department of Civil Engineering, Gifu University
**Division of Built Environment, Hokkaido University
[MATSUSHITA Taku] taku_m@cc.gifu-u.ac.jp
[MATSUI Yoshihiko] matsui@eng.hokudai.ac.jp
In order to investigate the change in the infectivity of virus (bacteriophage Qb) after dosing of polyaluminum coagulant (PACl), virus concentrations were measured by plaque forming unit (PFU) method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method after dissolving aluminum floc which had been formed during coagulation process and would have adsorbed/entrapped virus. The drop of infectious virus concentration after coagulation could not be explained by simple aggregation of infectious virus particles alone, suggesting that the loss of infectivity of virus caused by the PACl could partly account for the drop. The irreversible adhesion of virus to the polyaluminum species was enhanced by adding NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 to the virus containing water before dosing PACl, while it was reduced by adding NaHCO3. The addition of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 decreased the surface charge of the virus so that they might decrease the irreversible adhesion. NaHCO3 increased the surface charge of the virus, and this might decrease the irreversible adhesion.

Evaluation of Annual Amount of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Absorption in an Aquatic Plant (Zizania latifolia)
Keijiro ENARI*, Akiko KOHAMA**, Satoshi TAMAOKI***, Norio YAMANOBE***, Namiko KIKUCHI***CMasayuki Yamagishi****, Mitsunori FUJITA**, and Masatomo NAKAYAMA*****
*Dept. of Environmental Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Japan
**Dept. of Environmental Information Engineering, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Japan
***former Dept. of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Institute of Technology , Japan
****former Dept. of Environmental Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Institute of Technology , Japan

*****Dept. of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Institute of Technology , Japan [Keijiro ENARI] enari@tohtech.ac.jp
[Akiko KOHAMA] hamaki@tohtech.ac.jp
In this study, experiments in a water culture system inhibiting the nitrification and denitrification were conducted in 2001 (May-Dec.), 2002 (May-Dec.), 2003 (Jan.-May) and 2004 (Jul.-Nov.) to evaluate the annual amount of nitrogen and phosphorus absorption in the aquatic perennial plant, Zizania latifolia. The results were as follows: The amount of nitrogen and phosphorus absorption of a Z.latifolia was increased significantly in the early growth stage (from May to Jul.) and the maximum value of them was taken in September, the values were 680mg and 154mg, respectively. The amount of nitrogen and phosphorus absorption per wet weight of Z.latifolia were changed from 15mgEg-1, 2.7mgEg-1(in May) to 0.03mgEg-1, 0.01mgEg-1 (in Jan.), respectively. The amount of nitrogen and phosphorus absorption for the whole year was calculated as about 3,600mg and 720mg, respectively.

Accelerated degradation of aromatic compounds utilizing synergy between Pistia stratiotes L. and rhizosphere microbes
Tadashi TOYAMA*, Masaharu YOSHINAKA*, **, Kazunari SEI*, Michihiko IKE*, Masanori FUJITA*, ***
*Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University
**Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute
***Kochi National College of Technology
[Tasashi TOYAMA] toyama@wb.env.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp
A novel phytoremediation strategy "rhizoremediation" which utilizes synergy between macrophytes and microbes in the rhizosphere was proposed and its feasibility was investigated. Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) was used as a model macrophyte and its ability to accelerate of degradation of aromatic compounds in the rhizosphere was evaluated. P. stratiotes could promote the growth of microbe, retain a large microbial population in the rhizosphere, 109 CFU plant-1, and efficiently transport oxygen to stimulate the rhizospheric microbial activity, leading to accelerated phenol degradation. P. stratiotes showed accelerated removal of aniline and 2,4-dichlorophenol in the rhizosphere in addition to phenol, through the following mechanisms: (1) retaining a large population of the aromatic compound degraders, (2) stimulating bacterial growth and degradation activity, and (3) directly removing of aromatic compounds. In long-term phenol degradation process, phenol degradation performance in the rhizosphere of P. stratiotes was enhanced gradually and stabilized at a high phenol degradation rate, approximately 0.9 mg-phenol h-1 plant-1. Based on these results, the use of P. stratiotes and its rhizosphere can be a novel mean of effective remediation of contaminated aquatic environment.

Characteristics of water quality stratification related to the water-bloom occurrence in Urushizawa dam lake
SHITARA Kazuhiko*, NOMURA Munehiro*, CHIBA Nobuo*, FUJIMOTO Naoshi**, NAKANO Kazunori*, NISHIMURA Osamu*
*Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, JAPAN
**Faculty of Applied Bio-Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, JAPAN
[NOMURA Munehiro] nomu@eco.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
[NISHIMURA Osamu] osamura@eco.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
Field survey has been carried out to evaluate the water quality stratification related to the water-bloom occurrence in Urushizawa dam without the pollutant load source in the basin during summer season in 2004. From the result obtained, Chl.a concentration was 300g/l as a highest value at 0.5m water depth in August, and the dominance of Anabena sp. was observed. It was also found that the water bloom may be occurred by the accumulation of the nutrient such as the phosphorus in the only surface layer of the deep dam as well as a shallow lake, when the thermocline was formed. The fluctuation of phosphorus amount in surface layer was verified using the phosphorus balance model.

Growth Inhibition of Anabaena variabilis by Low- or Medium- Pressure UV Lamp Irradiation
SAKAI Hiroshi*, OGUMA Kumiko*, KATAYAMA Hiroyuki*, OHGAKI Shinichiro*
Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
A pure culture of Anabaena variabilis (NIES-23) was exposed to low-pressure (LP) or medium-pressure (MP) UV lamps. Irradiated samples were subsequently incubated under white light fluorescent lamps with 12h/12h of light/dark cycle. During incubation, profiles of the number of cells and of the damage of DNA were determined for each sample. At the UV fluence of 600 [mWs/cm2], the net log reduction of cells after 7days incubation was 2.3 log or 2.2 log by LPUV or MPUV, respectively. The number of DNA damage was 6.07 [10-4 ESS/base] (LPUV) and 4.48 [10-4 ESS/base] (MPUV) just after UV irradiation and it became 0.23 [10-4 ESS/base] (LPUV) and 0.40 [10-4 ESS/base] (MPUV) after 3days incubation, where the cell number turned to increase. Therefore, the repair of DNA damage had an impact on the growth inhibition of Anabaena variabilis by UV irradiation. In order to describe the behavior of cell number, model calculation was conducted. All parameters except one were obtained from experimental data. The model calculation successfully described the observed behavior of the cell number of Anabaena variabilis.

Sturdy on the distribution of DO in bottom-waters and Muscalista semhousia in HAKATA bay.
Koreyoshi YAMASAKI*, Ryouich WATANABE*, Hiroshi KUMAGAI**,Kenichi Fujita, Yoshinori KITNO***
*Department of Civil Engineering, Fukuoka University
**Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Science
***Kyushu Environmental Evaluation Association, ****Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kanto Gakuin University yama@fukuoka-u.ac.jp
DO in bottom waters, temperature, AVS, ORP of sediments and Muscalista semhousia(MS) in Hakata bay were surveyed monthly for three years, in this sturdy. The DO distribution in bottom waters were estimated by solving diffusion equation based on the observed data. The estimated distribution shows good agreement with observed data. The cohorts of MS and their environmental history were analyzed. We show mass distraction of a cohort was caused by high temperature and low DO. The remediation methods of Hakata bay were proposed.

Influence of variation in particulate organic matters on aquatic insects in the medium and small sized River Miyamori
KOBAYASHI Yuya*, SASAKI Atsushi**, ITO Ayumi***, ARAKAWA Shinsuke****, AIZAWA Jiro*****, UMITA Teruyuki*****
*Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, JAPAN
**Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, JAPAN
***Department of Frontier Materials and Functional Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, JAPAN
****Miyagi Prefectural Police Office, JAPAN
*****Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Iwate University, JAPAN
[ITO Ayumi] aitou@iwate-u.ac.jp
The influence of variation of particulate organic matter (POM) on aquatic insects in a medium and small size river was studied in the River Miyamori, Iwate Prefecture. The flux of POM larger than 3.35 mm remarkably increased in the fall of leaf, whereas that of POM smaller than 3.35 mm did not increase. The amount of POM in the river bed and its variation decreased downstream and they increased at the location of the riparian forests. In the upper reaches, aquatic insects were composed of various feeding functional groups and the biota became simple downstream because of the domination of collector-filter. However, the increase in standing crop of collector-gatherer at the forest of river side inhibited the simplification of composition of aquatic insects. Multivariate analysis on the standing crop of collector-gatherer and environmental factors showed that the increase of CPOM and FPOM in the river bed and attached algae promoted inhabitation of collector-gatherer. It was concluded that the supply of organic matters from the riparian forests and their accumulation on the river bed played an important role in biological diversity of aquatic insects.

Fish sampling characteristics using tubular traps and an electroshocker on agricultural canals in Yatsu paddy fields
*Department of Rural Environment, National Institute for Rural Engineering, JAPAN
**Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Council, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, JAPAN
[TAKEMURA Takeshi] taketake@nkk.affrc.go.jp
There are many activities that aim to contact with creatures in rural areas. In those activities, there will be many opportunities to sample creatures using simple tools. However, the result will be dealt as only outlines of the area, for example, crude ichthyofauna or identification of specific species. On the other hand, investigation specialists perform are required more detailed information. Then, they use systematic methods and special tools. However, it is not realistic to perform suchlike formal investigation over the country. In this respect, it is significant to analyze a little further result on activities previously stated. We compared fish sampling characteristics using two kinds of tools on a field experiment. Those tools were tubular traps, cheap and easy to obtain, and an electroshocker, very expensive and required legal permission to use. First, ichtyofauna of test sites grasped by each tool were nearly agreed. However, grasping ichtyofauna by tubular traps required repeated procedure. Second, on analysis of total length of loach, dominant species in test sites, it was tendency that more larger individuals were sampled by tubular traps. Finally, on analysis of loach individuals distribution, there was not quantitative but qualitative relationship between those two.

Investigation of aerobic digestion process for agricultural and horticultural use of sewage sluedge
SHOJI Tadashi*, OCHI Shuuichi*, OZAKI Masaaki*
*Recycling Research Team, Public Works Research Institute, JAPAN
[SHOJI Tadashi] shoji77@pwri.go.jp
The application of modified aerobic digestion process (liquid-composting) was examined for agricultural and horticultural use of sewage sludge. Experiments were carried out using a lab-scale airtight reactor under different tempereture conditions (20, 35, 50, 60 and 70 degrees centigrade). To keep aerobic condition, the reactor was filled with oxygen gas (2 atm). The CO2 emission under each condition was measured to estimate stabilization (or composting) process of the sewage sludge. The effect of the liquid compost on Komatsuna (Brassica campestris L.) was estimated by seedling experiment. Moreover, microbial communities were analyzed using PCR-DGGE assay. The following results were obtained from the experiment: 1) the sludge was stabilized by biological degradation for 10-14 days except 70 degree condition, 2) although the liquid compost of 60 and 70 degree conditions included inhibitor for the growth of Komatsuna, it could be degraded under 20 or 35 degree conditions, and 3) the microbial community under each condition had drastically changed for one week operation. A further direction of this study will be to apply the present process to the composting of other liquid biomass with sewage sludge.

Production of L-Lactic Acid from Unsterilized Garbage in Semicontinuous Culture
Satosi AKAO* and Hiroshi TSUNO*
*Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, JAPAN
[Satoshi AKAO] s_akao@water.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp
[Hiroshi Tsuno] tsuno@water.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp
In order to obtain L-lactic acid in high optical purity efficiently, acidogenic fermentation is investigated in semicontinuous culture with using unsterilized artificial garbage as a substrate. Reactors are kept under anaerobic conditions and fed with the garbage approximately every 2 days. The effects of fermentation temperature (thermophilic and mesophilic), pH (5 and 6) and hydraulic retention time (HRT of 20 and 10 days at pH 5, HRT of 10 and 5 days at pH 6) on composition of fermentation products are experimentally discussed in a series of operational conditions. Obtained lactic acid concentrations in the thermophilic culture broth are around 20 g/L at pH 5 and over 40 g/L at pH 6. Especially, at 10 days HRT and pH 6, the yield of the lactic acid (based on initial sugar concentrations) is nearly 100 %. Furthermore, the optical purity of L-lactic acid is maintained at more than 90 % under these operational conditions. In contrast the lactic acid concentrations in the mesophilic culture broth are around 20 g/L at pH 5 and below 10 g/L at pH 6. The optical purity of L-lactic acid is not constant but maintained below 20 % in this operation.

Study on the Development of Mushroom Cultivation Technology Using Dried Shochu Lees from Sweet Potato
YAMAUCHI Masahito *, IMAYA Ryuichi**, MASUDA Sumio ***, YAMADA Masayoshi ****, KIHARA Masato *, YONEYAMA Kenjirou *****, HARADA Hideki ****
*Department of Civil Engineering, Kagoshima National College of Technology, JAPAN
**Uemura co., Ltd.,JAPAN
***Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Miyazaki University, JAPAN
**** Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Nagaoka Universityof Technology, JAPAN
*****Xenocross co., Ltd., JAPAN
To help develop a technology for the conversion of the solid matter contained in sweet potato shochu lees, which is a food industrial waste, into a new resource, a study was conducted on the use of dried shochu lees as a nutrient material in the culture medium of hiratake mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Mushroom cultivation could be shortened by 4-8 days by using the shochu lees medium in lieu of the conventional rice bran medium. The mean yield in a test plot with 60% shochu lees was 137g, which was 1.6 times the yield from rice bran medium. Moreover, hiratake cultured in the shochu lees medium contained more protein than mushrooms grown on rice bran medium, indicating that the use of dried shochu lees could make it possible to commercially produce mushrooms with higher protein contents than conventionally grown mushrooms and open a way for large-scale utilization of shochu lees.

Assessment of Sulfur Denitrification Process for Tea Field Effluent By Microbial Community Analysis
*Sumitomo Heavy Industries, ltd., JAPAN
**Graduate school of Engineering, The University of Tokyo,JAPAN
[Yuko MATSUZAKI] Yko_Matsuzaki@shi.co.jp
[Kiyo HASEGAWA] kiyo@env.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp
Sulfur utilizing autotrophic denitrification process is an effective tool for on-site nitrate treatment of agricultural wastewater. In this study, the performance of on-site sulfur denitrification plants treating tea field effluent was evaluated. In addition, the microbial community was analyzed to identify sulfur denitrifying bacteria working in the plant. PCR-DGGE method targeting V3 region of 16S rDNA suggested that some bands were derived from sulfur denitrifying bacteria. These bands were not detected from the samples collected during the period of performance deterioration. Since sulfur denitrification was recovered by re-incubation, some environmental factors may affect the growth of sulfur denitrifying bacteria in the field plant. Water quality and oxygen condition could be main factors affecting treatment performance.

Simultaneous Quantification of Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria by Multiplex Real-time PCR
Shuji KAWAKAMI*, Nobuo ARAKI**, Takashi YAMAGUCHI***, Haruhiko SUMINO,Masanobu TAKAHASHI, Shinichi YAMAZAKI, Hiroyuki IMACHI*, Akiyoshi OHASHI* and Hideki HARADA*
* Dept. of Environmental System Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology
**Dept. of Civil Engineering, Nagaoka National College of Technology
***Dept. of Civil Engineering, Kure National College of Technology
Dept. of Civil Engineering, Gifu National College of Technology
Hiroshima Prefectural Institute of Industrial Science and Technology
Dept. of Civil Engineering, Kochi National College of Technology
[KAWAKAMI Shuji] shuji@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp
[ARAKI Nobuo]araki@nagaoka-ct.ac.jp
Multiplex real-time PCR was applied to simultaneous quantification of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in a novel wastewater treatment system enhancing sulfur-redox cycle by a microbial community.@Three approaches in real-time PCR, such as SYBR Green I intercalating dye, TaqMan probe and multiplex TaqMan probe (multiplex real-time PCR) were evaluated by PCR amplification efficiency with a serial dilution of 16S rRNA genes amplified from DNA extracted from Thiobacillus thioparus and Desulfobulbus elongatus. The PCR amplification efficiency of multiplex real-time PCR was found to be low in comparison to those of SYBR GreenTand TaqMan probe in case of both bacteria. For application on sludge sample taken from an aerobic biofilter, cDNA, obtained by reverse transcription from total RNA, was used as real-time PCR templates. Changes in 16S rRNA level of Thiobacillus gen. and Desulfobulbus spp. groups determined by the three real-time PCR assays showed the same tendency during experimental period, but the values obtained from multiplex real-time PCR was less than 10% of those obtained from other assays. Numbers of 16S rRNA of both bacterial groups virtually remained the same level in the aerobic biofilter throughout the experimental period.

Molecular Analysis of Microbial Community Structures in the Novel Sulfur Redox Action Process Applied to Low Temperature Treatment of Deicing Fluid Wastewater
Takahiro IMAI*, Nobuo ARAKI*, Yoshihisa BUNGO**, Takashi YAMAGUCHI**, Masanobu TAKAHASHI*** and Akihiro NAGANO****
*Dept. of Civil Engineering, Nagaoka National College of Technology
**Dept. of Civil Engineering, Kure National College of Technology
***Hiroshima Prefectural Institute of Industrial Science of Technology
****Environment System Division, Sanki Engineering Co. Ltd.
[IMAI Takahiro] ac16822m @st.nagaoka-ct.ac.jp
[ARAKI Nobuo]araki@nagaoka-ct.ac.jp
Microbial community structure was characterized in a novel wastewater treatment process facilitating a sulfur-redox cycle by microorganisms such as sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). A combined system consisting of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) and an aerobic downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was applied for low temperature treatment of deicing fluid wastewater. The whole process achieved over 90% of CODcr removal efficiency with less than 30 mg-CODcr/L in the final effluent, at an operating temperature of 8 _C and at an HRT of 12h. In UASB sludge, Acetobacterium sp. and Desulfobulbus sp. were found to be predominant species as the relative abundance to DAPI-stained total cells was 10% and 14%, respectively, by clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Relatively high sulfate reducing activity from acetate was determined by serum vial tests, but the absolute identification of acetate utilizing SRB could not be made through molecular techniques. In DHS sludge, Tetracoccus sp., Thiomonas sp. and Acidthiobacillus sp. could be a numerically dominant component of microbial communities for removal of residual COD and sulfur oxidation in UASB effluents.

Role of sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation bacteria on denitrification using disposable chopsticks as organic carbon source
*Graduate School of Natural Science & Technology, Kanazawa University, JAPAN
[Ryoko YAMAMOTO-IKEMOTO] rikemoto@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp
Denitrification using chopsticks as organic carbon source was examined in an anaerobic-anoxic biological filter reactor and an anoxic biological filter reactor. In the two phase anaerobic-anoxic reactor, sulfate reduction and acetate production occurred in the anaerobic bed packed with chopsticks. In the anoxic bed connected to the anaerobic bed with chopsticks, sulfur denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification occurred. In the single anoxic biological filter reactor, denitrification and sulfate reduction occurred simultaneously in the anoxic bed packed with chopsticks. The sulfate reducing activities of the biofilm in both reactors packed with chopsticks were high, meaning that sulfate reduction played an important role on decomposition of chopsticks. Microbial community of sulfate reducing bacteria and sulfur oxidation bacteria was examined by a FISH method. Desulfobulbus spp., Desulfobactor spp. and Desulfonema spp. were most common sulfate reducing bacteria grown in the anaerobic bed of the two phase reactor and the anoxic bed of the single reactor. Thiobacillus denitrificans was also observed in the anoxic biofilm with the chopsticks of the single reactor. It was observed that Desulfonema spp. was attached with Thiothrix nivea, and sulfur oxidation-reduction cycle was established in the biofilm under anoxic condition

Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in water by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).
Yoshifumi MASAGO* **, Kumiko OGUMA*, Hiroyuki KATAYAMA* and Shinichiro OHGAKI*
* Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
** Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University (Present address) masago@water.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
A new genotyping method of Cryptosporidium, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by DNA sequencing, was developed to genotype Cryptosporidium spp. in river water. The DGGE method could successfully discriminate nine species of Cryptosporidium: C. parvum, C. hominis, C. canis, C. meleagridis, C. felis, C. sp. strain 938, C. andersoni, C. serpentis and C. saurophilum. The sequential combination of the QProbe PCR method for quantification; and the DGGE method and DNA sequencing for genotyping, enabled the simultaneous quantification and genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in the same water sample. This method was applied to analyze Cryptosporidium in the Koyama River, a tributary of the Tone River, both for the total concentration of organisms, and for their genotype. Seven Cryptosporidium genotypes (C. andersoni, C. sp. strain 938, C. parvum, C. hominis, C. sp. PG1-26, C. sp. t03, C. sp. t04) were found in 11 positive samples (positive ratio = 69%). A bovine specific species, C. andersoni, was found most frequently (7 samples). The genotypes infectious to human accounted for only 16% of the concentration of all genotypes. These results showed that this detection method could provide valuable information on Cryptosporidium in river water both in the quantity and in the genotypes, which is essential for the precise assessment of waterborne risk to human health.

Gene of Heavy Metal-Binding Protein newly acquired from genomic DNA library of activated sludge bacteria
SANO Daisuke*C MYOJO Ken*C OMURA Tatsuo*
*Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, JAPAN
[SANO Daisuke] sano@water.civil.tohoku.ac.jp
Gene of heavy metal-binding protein (HMBP) was newly isolated from genomic DNA library of activated sludge bacteria. In order to obtain the objective gene on the strength of N-terminal amino acid sequence of HMBP, a set of gene screening method was constructed. The constructed screening method employs CODEHOP method, touchdown PCR and semi-nested PCR, which makes it possible to amplify the specific HMBP gene. Two acidic amino acids (aspartic acid and glutamic acid) occupied 24% of a deduced amino acid sequence of HMBP, and the rate of metal-coordinating amino acids (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, methionine and histidine) among the deduced sequence of HMBP reached 35%. The estimated secondary and tertiary structures revealed that HMBP is composed of abundance of alpha helices in which amino acid side chains expose to outside. A lot of metal-coordinating residues projecting out from the alpha helices would confer the heavy metal-binding ability on HMBP.

Cultivation, Identification and Specific Detection of Anaerobic Syntrophic Long-Chain Fatty Acids-degrading Microorganisms in Anaerobic Sludges
Masashi HATAMOTO*, Hiroyuki IMACHI*, Akiyoshi OHASHI*, and Hideki HARADA*
*Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology
[Hiroyuki IMACHI] imachi@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp
[Masashi HATAMOTO] hatamoto@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp
The anaerobic long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) degrading microorganisms were enriched and attempted at isolation of those microbes to address the fundamental information of microbes responsible for anaerobic degradation of LCFA. Primary enrichment cultures were made with each of four LCFA substrates (palmitate, stearate, oleate and linoleate as a sole energy source) at 55C or 37C with two sources of anaerobic granular sludge as the inoculum. After several successive transfers of these enrichments, we applied 16S rRNA gene-based molecular approaches for the enrichments to reveal the bacterial populations reside in. These results suggested that anaerobic degradation of LCFA may involve in not only microbes belonging to the family Syntrophomonadaceae, which contains all anaerobic syntrophic LCFA degrader isolated so far, but also phylogenetically different groups of bacteria. After several attempts were made to isolate these microbes, we obtained a highly purified culture which was able to degrade palmitate in syntrophic association with hydrogenotrophic methanogens from the thermophilic palmitate-degrading enrichment culture. In addition, we successfully isolated strain TOL which was predominant population in the thermophilic oleate-degrading enrichment culture. However, strain TOL did not show oleate degradability under any cultivation conditions to date.